Video: Pressure Effects on Low-Liquid Loading Oil-Gas Flow in Slightly Upward Inclined Pipes: Flow Pattern, Pressure Gradient and Liquid Holdup
- Hendy Rodrigues (The University of Tulsa, Petrobras) | Eduardo Pereyra (The University of Tulsa) | Cem Sarica (The University of Tulsa)
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- Society of Petroleum Engineers
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- 2018. Copyright is retained by the author. This presentation is distributed by SPE with the permission of the author. Contact the author for permission to use material from this video.
- 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 7 Management and Information, 7.6.4 Data Mining, 4.6 Natural Gas, 4.3.4 Scale, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 4.6 Natural Gas, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 7.6 Information Management and Systems, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers
- Interfacial roughness, Stratified flow, Low-liquid loading, Pseudo-slug, Annular flow
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This paper studies the effects of system pressure in oil-gas low-liquid loading flow in a slightly upward inclined pipe configuration using new experimental data acquired in a high-pressure flow loop. Flow rates are representative of the flow in wet gas transport pipelines. Results for flow pattern observations, pressure gradient, liquid holdup and interfacial roughness measurements are presented and compared to available predictive models. The experiments were carried out at three system pressures (1.48, 2.17 and 2.86 MPa) in a 0.155 m ID pipe inclined at 2° with the horizontal. Isopar-L oil and nitrogen gas were the working fluids. Liquid superficial velocities ranged from 0.01 to 0.05 m/s while gas superficial velocities ranged from 1.5 to 16 m/s. Measurements included pressure gradient and liquid holdup. Flow visualization and Wire-Mesh Sensor (WMS) data were used to identify the flow patterns. Interfacial roughness was obtained from the WMS data.
Three flow patterns were observed: pseudo-slug, stratified and annular. Pseudo-slug is characterized as an intermittent flow where the liquid does not occupy the whole pipe cross-section as the traditional slug flow does. In the annular flow pattern, the bulk of the liquid was observed to flow at the pipe bottom in a stratified configuration, however, a thin liquid film covered the whole pipe circumference. In both stratified and annular flow patterns, the interface between the gas core and the bottom liquid film presented a flat shape. The superficial gas Froude number, FrSg, was found to be an important dimensionless parameter to scale the pressure effects on the measured parameters. In the pseudo-slug flow pattern, the flow is gravity-dominated. Pressure gradient is a function of FrSg and vSL. Liquid holdup is independent of vSL and a function of FrSg. In the stratified and annular flow patterns the flow is friction-dominated. Both pressure gradient and liquid holdup are functions of FrSg and vSL. Interfacial roughness measurements show a small variation in the stratified and annular flow patterns. Model comparison gives mixed results, depending on the specific flow conditions. A relation between the measured interfacial roughness and the interfacial friction factor is proposed, and the results agree with existing measurements.