Post-Yield Material Characterization for Strain-Based Design
- Trent M.V. Kaiser (Noetic Engineering Inc.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- March 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 128 - 134
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 1.14.1 Casing Design, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 4.2.2 Pipeline Transient Behavior, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 3.2.5 Produced Sand / Solids Management and Control
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 516 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Conventional material specifications and test methods were developed to support load-based designs in which inelastic deformations are relatively small and yield strength is the primary material factor governing design. However, in strain-based designs where substantial portions of the structure soften under post-yield deformation, more detailed characterization of the post-yield material behavior is required. This paper presents a framework for describing the post-yield properties of metals (including strain-rate dependence of yield strength) a testing method for measuring post-yield strength in terms of strain and strain rate, and an analytical basis for extrapolating measured properties to static conditions for strain-based design and quality assurance (QA).
Typical test specifications for determining the mechanical properties of oil-country tubular goods (OCTG) were developed to provide an index of mechanical strength to support common load-based design methods. Advancing recovery techniques impose conditions on many well structures that exceed the limits of these methods and the material characterizations on which they are founded. Among these new techniques are those used to recover heavy oil. While typical conditions in heavy-oil reservoirs appear benign, enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) methods such as thermal stimulation and ultrahigh sand production create some of the most challenging conditions for well structures. Imposed deformations commonly exceed the yield limit of the material, therefore post-yield material characteristics govern much of the structural response.
Industry-standard material tests provide only limited characterization of post-yield behavior, particularly at strain levels near the yield point (both pre- and post-yield). Furthermore, test strain rates can affect the measured material strength significantly. Field loading usually occurs at much lower rates and is then sustained for extended periods. A method for characterizing post-yield material properties is, therefore, desired to adequately support designs for such applications.
This paper proposes a new basis for characterizing mechanical steel properties that provides the static strength and stiffness over the post-yield strain range. Relaxation characteristics are interpreted from testing, and local stiffness properties are provided. Although static properties are inferred, the test and interpretation basis allows the tests to be executed in a relatively brief time frame, making it possible to apply the method in QA programs to confirm post-yield properties for strain-based designs. A test apparatus built to implement the material-characterization protocol is presented, and sample results are provided to demonstrate the method.
|File Size||471 KB||Number of Pages||7|
Application to the National Energy Board for Approval of the MackenzieValley Pipeline. Volume 3: Engineering Design. 2004. NEB-MGP, http://www2.ngps.nt.ca/applicationsubmission/Documents/MGP_CPCN_Vol3_Set_1_S.pdf.
ASTM A370-05, Standard Test Methods and Definitions for MechanicalTesting of Steel Products. 2005. Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: ASTMInternational. doi: 10.1520/A0370-05.
ASTM E606-04, Standard Practice for Strain-Controlled FatigueTesting. 2004. Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: ASTM International.
ASTM E8-04, Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of MetallicMaterials. 2004. Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: ASTM International.
ASTM E9-89a, Standard Test Methods of Compression Testing of MetallicMaterials at Room Temperature. 2000. Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: ASTMInternational.
CSA Z662-03, Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems. 2003. Mississauga,Ontario: Canadian Standards Association.
Dall'Acqua, D., Smith, D.T., and Kaiser, T.M.V. 2005. Post-Yield Thermal Design Basis forSlotted Liner. Paper SPE 97777 presented at the SPE/PS-CIM/CHOAInternational Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, 1-3November. doi: 10.2118/97777-MS.
DNV-OS-F101, Submarine Pipeline Systems. 2002. Høvik, Norway: DetNorske Veritas.
Dorey, B.D., Murray, D.W., and Cheng, R.J.J. 2002. Material property effectson critical buckling strains in energy pipelines. Proc., 4thInternational Pipeline Conference, Calgary, 19 September-3 October, paper27225.
Drysdale, W.H. and Zak, A.R.1985. A theory forrate-dependent plasticity. Computers & Structures20 (1-3): 259-265. doi:10.1016/0045-7949(85)90075-6.
Dusseault, M.B., Bruno, M.S., and Barrera, J. 2001. Casing Shear: Causes, Cases,Cures. SPE Drill & Compl 16 (2): 98-107.SPE-72060-PA. doi: 10.2118/72060-PA.
Ellinas, C.P., Walker, A.C., Palmer, A.C., and Howard, C.R. 1989. Subseapipeline cost reductions achieved through the use of limit state andreliability methods. Proc., European Seminar on Offshore PipelineTechnology, Amsterdam, February.
Klever, F.J., Palmer, A.C., and Kyriakides, S. 1994. Limit-state design ofhigh-temperature pipelines. Proc., 13th International Conference on OffshoreMechanics and Arctic Engineering, Houston, 27 February-3 March.
Manjoine, M.J. 1944. Influence of rate of strain and temperature on yieldstresses of mild steel. Journal of Applied Mechanics 11(A): 211-218.
Maruyama, K., Tsuru, E., Ogasawara, M., Inoue, Y., and Peters, E.J. 1990. An Experimental Study of CasingPerformance Under Thermal Cycling Conditions. SPE Drill Eng5 (2): 156-164. SPE-18776-PA. doi: 10.2118/18776-PA.
Oding, I.A. 1965. Creep and Stress Relaxation in Metals, 281-313.London: Oliver & Boyd.
Palmer, A.C. 1991. Limit state design of pipelines and its incorporation indesign codes. Proc., 2nd Offshore Symposium on Design Criteria andCodes, Houston, 4-5 April.
Palmer, A.C. and Curson, N.S.T. 1995. Examining the applicability of currentpipeline engineering design codes to deepwater pipelines. Proc., 2ndDeepwater Pipelines Congress: Advances in the Design, Installation andOperation of Deepwater Flowlines, London/Paris, 11-12 December.
Perzyna, P. 1971. Thermodynamic theory of viscoplasticity. In Advances inApplied Mechanics, Vol. 11, ed. Y. Chia-Shun, 313-354. New York City:Academic Press.
Schwall, G.H., Slack, M.W., and Kaiser, T.M.V. 1996. Reservoir Compaction Well Design forthe Ekofisk Field. Paper SPE 36621 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Denver, 6-9 October. doi: 10.2118/36621-MS.
Slack, M.W., Roggensack, W.D., Wilson, G., and Lemieux, R.O. 2000. Thermal-Deformation-ResistantSlotted-Liner Design for Horizontal Wells. Paper SPE 65523 presented at theSPE/CIM International Conference on Horizontal Well Technology, Calgary, 6-8November. doi: 10.2118/65523-MS.
SPEC 5CT, Specification for Casing and Tubing, sixth edition. 1998.Washington, DC: API.
Wooley, G.R., Christman, S.A, and Crose, J.G. 1977. Strain Limit Design of 13 3/8-in.,N-80 Buttress Casing. J. Pet Tech 29 (4): 355-359.SPE-6061-PA. doi: 10.2118/6061-PA.