Improved Mechanical IGF Technology for Floating Production Storage and Offloading Application - First Installation Theory and Practice
- Crystal Rivet (Chevron N. America Upstream) | Shaya Movafaghian (Cameron Process Systems) | James Chen (Petreco)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Projects, Facilities & Construction
- Publication Date
- September 2006
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1 - 4
- 2006. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.6 Natural Gas, 4.5.2 Platform Design, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.3.3 Aspaltenes, 1.3.2 Subsea Wellheads, 6.5.3 Waste Management, 4.3.4 Scale, 4.5 Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems, 4.1.4 Gas Processing, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 4.1.3 Dehydration, 4.5.3 Floating Production Systems, 3.2.6 Produced Water Management
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This paper is intended to be part of the continuous development and adaptation of mechanical-cylindrical induced-gas-flotation (IGF) technology that meets the demands of today's offshore production practices as the best-available technology (BAT). The focus of this paper relates theory to practice for this new, yet proven, technology, and presents the real-life example of one of its applications. This paper presents the problem-solving and selection process adopted by Chevron Corp.'s North America Operations Team at the Typhoon production facility, located in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. The paper compares alternative solutions, and the economic advantages and disadvantages of each. It also provides an in-depth analysis of the performance achieved after installation of the dual cell on the basis of the theoretical model developed for this equipment.
Produced-water production is by far the most challenging problem for the mature oil fields of our time. The actual production numbers are unknown, but various literature has reported an estimated 210 million BWPD on a global scale (Khatib and Verbeek 2003). The American Petroleum Inst. (API 2000) reports that 18 billion bbl of water was produced from onshore operations in 1995, in addition to large amounts from offshore, in the U.S. alone. A study by Veil et al. (2004) for the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) estimates that from 1985 to 2002, there has been a steady increase in water production in the U.S. from 7.4 to 9.5 bbl of water for each bbl of oil produced. Regardless of the locality of these estimates, similar trends have been reported elsewhere on the global scale. These facts are in line with increased debottlenecking activities for major operators at oil-production facilities worldwide.
In addition, increased environmental awareness, discharge limits set by governmental regulatory organizations, and self-imposed regulations are other factors in the produced-water-treatment problem. Sheer production volume and ever-tightening regulations are imposing an economic burden on all producers at large. In recent years, the market demand for more economic treatment of produced water has revived a new interest in water-treatment technologies and has acted as the catalyst to the efforts for improving these technologies.
|File Size||531 KB||Number of Pages||4|
API. 2000. Overview of Exploration and Production Waste Volumes and WasteManagement Practices in the United States. ICF Consulting/AmericanPetroleum Inst. (May).
Chevron Corp. 2001. Chevron Begins Production at Typhoon. Press Release (30 July)http://www.chevron.com/news/archive/chevron%5Fpress/2001/2001%2D07%2D30.asp
Khatib, Z. and Verbeek, P. 2003. Water to Value—Produced WaterManagement for Sustainable Field Development of Mature and Green Fields.JPT 55 (1): 26-28. SPE-73853-PA.
Movafaghian, S. et al. 2004. Pilot Testing of a New Generation ofInduced Gas Flotation Equipment. SPEPF 19 (1): 9-13.SPE-87630-PA.
Veil, J.A. et al. 2004. A White Paper Describing Produced Water fromProduction of Crude Oil, Natural Gas and Coal Bed Methane. 25-26.Washington, DC: U.S. DOE, Natl. Energy Dept. Laboratory (January).