Effect of Water-Cut on Sand Production - An Experimental Study
- Bailin Wu (CSIRO Petroleum) | Chee P. Tan (Schlumberger WTA Malaysia S/B) | Ning Lu (Colorado School of Mines)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- August 2006
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 349 - 356
- 2006. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2 Well Completion, 5.6.9 Production Forecasting, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 4.3.1 Hydrates, 5.3.4 Integration of geomechanics in models, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.2.2 Perforating, 1.8 Formation Damage, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 3.2.5 Produced Sand / Solids Management and Control
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 903 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
It is commonly acknowledged in the petroleum industry that water cut increases sand-production risk, and a number of possible mechanisms have been proposed. This paper presents the results of a series of laboratory perforation-collapse tests aimed at demonstrating and quantifying the water-cut effect on perforation failure and sand production.
The laboratory perforation-collapse tests were conducted on weak sandstones obtained from downhole and outcrop. The tests were performed under simulated in-situ effective stresses and drawdown conditions. Water was introduced into the flowing stream of either oil or gas at various stages of the tests to simulate water cut. The failure and sand-production processes were observed and recorded using a borescope in real time.
The results showed that the effect of water cut on perforation strength and sand production depends on the mineralogical composition of the sandstone and the degree of residual water saturation. The effect is most significant for sandstones with high clay content and low residual water saturation and is less significant for clean sandtones or those with high residual water saturation. The experimental results are discussed on the basis of the chemical interaction between water and rocks—capillary stress and relative permeability. It is concluded that water-saturation-induced rock-strength reduction is the most significant factor governing perforation failure and sand production. Although perforation failure is a prerequisite for sand production, the failure does not always lead to sand production.
Sand production in the petroleum industry is a phenomenon of solid particles being produced together with reservoir fluids. Conceptually, this process may be divided into three stages: failure of the rocks surrounding an open hole or perforation, detachment of sand grains from the failed materials, and transportation of the sand grains into the wellbore and to the surface. It costs oil companies tens of billions of U.S. dollars annually (Acock et al. 2004).
Increase in water production in the late life of oil and gas fields is inevitable, be it a result of water injection or water coning. On average, oil companies today produce 3 bbl of water for each 1 bbl of oil (Bailey et al. 2000). The effect of water cut on sand production has been a major concern in the petroleum industry. It has been observed on many occasions in the field that initiation of sand production coincides with water breakthough (Veeken et al. 1991; Bruno et al. 1996). But on other occasions, it has been observed that both events do not relate to each other, and sand production may initiate before or after water breakthough (Sanfilippo et al. 1995; Skjaerstein et al. 1997). Despite these inconsistent field observations, it is generally accepted that sand-production risk increases as a result of water production.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||8|
Acock, A., O'Rourke, T., Shirmboh, D. et al. 2004. Practical Approaches toSand Management. Oil Field Review 16 (1): 10-27.
Bailey, B., Crabtree, M., Tyrie, J., Elphick, J., Kuchuk, F., Romano, C.,and Roodhart, L. 2000. Water Control. Oil Field Review 12(1):30-51.
Ballivy, G., Ladanyi, B., and Gill, D.E. 1976. Effect of Water SaturationHistory on the Strength of Low-Porosity Rocks. American Soc. for Testing andMaterials Special Technical Publication 599: 4-20.
Baud, P., Zhu, W., and Wong, T.F. 2000. Failure Mode and Weakening Effectof Water on Sandstone. J. Geophy. Res. 105 (B7):16,371-16,389.
Bianco, L.C.B. and Halleck, P.M. 2001. Mechanisms of Arch Instability andSand Production in Two-Phase Saturated Poorly Consolidated Sandstones.Paper SPE 68932 presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, TheHague, 21-22 May.
Bishop, A.W. 1955. The Principle of Effective Stress. Teknisk Ukeblad106 (39): 859-863.
Brignoli, M., Santarelli, F.J., and Papamichos, E. 1995. Capillary Effectsin Sedimentary Rocks: Application to Reservoir Water-Flooding. Proc. ofthe 35th U. of Nevada U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium, Reno, Nevada, 5-7June.
Bruno, M.S., Bovberg, C.A., and Meyer, R.F. 1996. Some Influences of Saturation andFluid Flow on Sand Production: Laboratory and Discrete Element ModelInvestigations. Paper SPE 36534 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Denver, 6-9 October.
Colback, P.S.B. and Wiid, B.L. 1965. The Influence of Moisture Content onthe Compressive Strength of Rocks. Proc. of the 3rd Canadian RockMechanics Symposium, Toronto, Ontario.
Dowla, N., Hayatdavoudi, A., Ghalambor, A., Okoye, C., and Alcocer, C. 1990.Laboratory Investigation of Saturation Effect on Mechanical Properties ofRocks. Proc. paper presented at the Soc. of Petrophysicists and Well LogAnalysis 31st Annual Logging Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, 24-27 June.
Dyke, C.G., and Doberiner, L. 1991. Evaluating the Strength andDeformability of Sandstones. Quartely J. of Engineering Geology24: 123-134.
Forsans, T. and Schmit, L. 1994. Capillary Forces: the NeglectedFactor in Shale Instability Studies. Eurock'94, Rotterdam, The Netherlands,29-31 August.
Hall, C.D. Jr. and Harrisberger, W.H. 1970. Stability of Sand Arches: A Key toSand Control. JPT 22 (7): 821-829. SPE-2399-PA.
Han, G. and Dusseault, M.B. 2002. Quantitative Analysis of Mechanismsfor Water-Related Sand Production. Paper SPE 73737 presented at the SPEInternational Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette,Louisiana, 20-21 February.
Han, G., Dusseault, M.B., and Cook, J. 2002. Quantifying Rock Capillary StrengthBehavior in Unconsolidated Sandstones. Paper SPE 78170 presented at theSPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics Conference, Irving, Texas, 20-23 October.
Hawkins, A.B. and McConnell, B.J. 1992. Sensitivity of Sandstone Strengthand Deformability to Changes in Moisture Content. Quaterly J. of EngineeringGeology 25: 115-130.
Lu, N. and Likos, W.J. 2004. UnsaturatedSoil Mechanics. New York City: John Wiley & Sons Inc.,566.
Papamichos, E., Liolios, P., and van den Hoek, P.J. 2004. Breakout StabilityExperiments and Analysis. Paper ARMA/NARMS 04-581 presented at the 6th NorthAmerica Rock Mechanics Symposium, Houston, 5-9 June.
Ransom, R. PracticalFormation Evaluation. 1995. New York City: John Wiley & SonsInc.
Sanfilippo, F., Ripa, G., Brignoli, M., and Santarelli, F.J. 1995. Economical Management of SandProduction by a Methodology Validated on an Extensive Database of FieldData. Paper SPE 30472 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, Dallas, 22-25 October.
Skjaerstein, A., Tronvoll, J., Santarelli, F.J., and Joranson, H. 1997. Effect of Water Breakthrough on SandProduction: Experimental and Field Evidence. Paper SPE 38806 presented atthe SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 5-8October.
Tan, C.P., Rahman, S.S., Richards, B.G., and Mody, F.K. 1998. Integrated Approach to Drilling FluidOptimisation for Efficient Shale Instability Management. Paper SPE 48875presented at the SPE International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition inChina, Beijing, 2-6 November.
Tiab, D. and Donaldson, E.C. 1996. Petrophysics: Theory and Practice ofMeasuring Reservoir Rock and Fluid Transport Properties. Houston: GulfPublishing Co.
Vaziri, H., Barree, B., Xiao Y., Palmer, I., and Kutas, M. 2002. What is the Magic of Water inProducing Sand? Paper SPE 77683 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, San Antonio, 29 September-2 October.
Veeken, C.A.M., Davies, D.R., Kenter, C.J., and Kooijman, A.P. 1991. Sand Production Prediction Review:Developing an Intergrated Approach. Paper SPE 22792 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 6-9 October.
Willson, S.M., Moschovidis, Z.A., Cameron, J.R., and Palmer, I.D. 2002. New Model for Predicting the Rate ofSand Production. Paper SPE 78168 presented at the SPE/ISRM Rock MechanicsConference, Irving, Texas, 20-23 October.
Wu, B. and Tan, C.P. 2001. Effect of Water-Cut on Sandstone Strength andImplications in Sand Production Prediction. Proc. of the 38th U.S. RockMechanics Symposium, Washington, DC, 7-10 July.
Wu, B., Yaakub, M.A., Tan, C.P., Yeow, L.M., and Johar, Z. 2004. SandProduction Prediction Study for a Multi-Field Gas Development. Paper ARMA/NARMS504 presented at the 6th North America Rock Mechanics Symposium, Houston, 5-9June.