Sand-Production Prediction: A New Set of Criteria for Modeling Based on Large-Scale Transient Experiments and Numerical Investigation
- Alireza Nouri (U. of Alberta) | Hans H. Vaziri (BP America) | Hadi A. Belhaj (Dalhousie U.) | M. Rafiqul Islam (Dalhousie U.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2006
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 227 - 237
- 2006. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.8 Formation Damage, 2.2.2 Perforating, 5.6.9 Production Forecasting, 5.8.3 Coal Seam Gas, 3.2.5 Produced Sand / Solids Management and Control, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.3.1 Flow in Porous Media, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc), 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 1,190 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
This paper introduces a predictive tool that forecasts the drawdown associated with the onset of sanding as well as it predicts the sanding rate in real time. Experimental data on hollow cylinder samples (HCS) are used to support the validity of the numerical model.
Experiments on hollow-cylinder synthetic-sandstone specimens were conducted, involving real-time sand-production measurement under various conditions. A numerical approach was used for simulating the experimental results. The material behavior was simulated using an elastoplastic stress-strain relationship. The model simulated the interaction between fluid flow and mechanical deformation of the medium in predicting sand production. The model simulated strain softening of the material accompanied with shear-bands formation as well as tensile failure. In the post-disaggregation phase, additional features were considered, including allowing for the removal of the disaggregated elements that have satisfied the sanding criteria and, consequently, making the necessary adjustments to the size and properties of the domain under consideration. The model can be used for time-dependent analysis of wellbore stability as it undergoes disaggregation and sand production induced by depletion, drawdown, and water cut. Such numerical tools can be used in designing the completion by identifying the critical operational conditions associated with severe sanding over the lifetime of the wellbore.
The model showed a reasonable agreement with experimental results in terms of rock deformation and sanding rate. Further validation of the model against experimental and field data is necessary for its potential field applications.
It is estimated that 70% of the total world's oil and gas reserves are found in poorly consolidated reservoirs (Bianco and Halleck 2001). Poorly consolidated formations are the most common solid producers. Several sand-production prediction methods have been proposed using geotechnical models. Existing models can effectively predict the onset of sand production and analyze cavity stability and rock failure; however, there still is room for improvement in predicting the volumetric sand production over the lifetime of the wellbore as a function of the completion strategy, drawdown, depletion, and water-cut.
In the following, a brief description of the existing models is introduced.
Several analytical and numerical models have been proposed for the prediction of sanding (Risnes et al. 1982; Perkins and Weingarten 1988; Sanfilippo et al. 1995; Vaziri et al. 1997; Vaziri and Palmer 1998; Morita and Fuh 1998). Most predict only the onset of sanding (Sanfilippo et al. 1995; Morita et al. 1989a; Morita et al. 1989b; Veeken et al. 1991; Weingarten and Perkins 1995; Kessler et al. 1993; Tronvoll and Halleck 1994; Wang and Dusseault 1996). There are only a few that give an indication of the severity of sanding (Papamichos and Malmanger 1999; Nouri et al. 2003; van den Hoek and Geilikman 2003). Some models view sand production as a mixed hydromechanical process (Papamichos and Malmanger 1999; Tronvoll et al. 1992; Tronvoll et al. 1997a; Tronvoll et al. 1997b; Charlez 1997). Some others base their sanding model solely on a cavity's mechanical stability (Antheunis et al. 1976a).
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Antheunis, D., Vriezen, P.B., Schipper, B.A., and van der Vlis, A.C. 1976a.Perforation Collapse: Failure ofPerforated Friable Sandstones. Paper SPE 5750 presented at the SPE EuropeanSpring Meeting, Amsterdam, 8-9 April.
Antheunis, D., Geertsma, J. and Vriezen, P.B. 1976b. Mechanical Stability ofPerforation Tunnels in Friable Sandstones. Proc., paper presented at the AnnualPetroleum Mechanical Engineering Conference of the ASME, Mexico City.
Barril, R.J. and Gay, L.G. 1983. Controlling Sand Production in High RateGas Wells. World Oil. 197: 52-56.
Bianco, L.C.B. and Halleck, P.M. 2001. Mechanisms of Arch Instability andSand Production in Two-Phase Saturated Poorly Consolidated Sandstones.Paper SPE 68932 presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, TheHague, 21-22 May
Bratly, R.K. and Risnes, R. 1981. Stability and Failure of SandArches. SPEJ 21(2):236-248. SPE-8427.
Charlez, P.A. 1997. Rock Mechanics: Vol 2: Petroleum Applications. EditionsTechnip.
Coates, D.R., and Denoo,S.A. 1981. Mechanical Properties Program UsingBorehole Analysis, and Mohr's Circle. Proc., SPWLA Annual Logging Symposium,23-26 June.
Cundall, P.A. and Board, M. 1988. A Microcomputer Program for ModellingLarge-Strain Plasticity Problems. Numerical Methods in Geomechanics.Proc., Intl. Conf. on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, C. Swododa (ed),Rotterdam: Balkema, 2101-2108.
Das, B.M. 1990. Advanced Soil Mechanics. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,Intl. Edition, 94-95.
Durrett, J.L. Golbin, W.T., Murray, J.W., and Tighe, R.E. 1977. Seeking a Solution to SandControl. JPT 29(12):1664-1672. SPE-6210.
Edwards, D., Joranson, H., and Spurlin, J. 1988. Field Normalization ofFormation Mechanical Properties. Paper presented at the SPWLA Annual LoggingSymposium, Houston, 5-8 June.
Edwards, D.P., Sharma, Y., and Charron, A. 1983. Zones of Sand ProductionIdentified by Log-Derived Mechanical Properties: A Case Study. Proc., SPWLAEuropean Formation Evaluation Symposium, London.
FLAC—Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua. User's Guide 4.00. Secondrevision. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Itasca Consulting Group.
Geilikman, M.B., Dullien, F.A.L., and Dusseault, M.B. 1997. Erosional Creepof Fluid-Saturated Granular Medium. J. of Eng. Mechanics of ASCE123:653-659.
Hall, C.D. Jr, and Harrisburger, W.H. 1970. Stability of Sand Arches: A Key toSand Control. JPT 22(7):821-829. SPE-2399.
Han, G. and Dusseault, M.B. 2002. Quantitative Analysis of Mechanismsfor Water-Related Sand Production. Paper SPE 73737 presented at the SPEInternational Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette,Louisiana, 20-21 February.
Kessler, N., Wang, Y., and Santarelli, F.J. 1993. A Simplified Pseudo-3D Model toEvaluate Sand Production Risk in Deviated Cased Holes. Paper SPE 26541presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 3-6October.
Morita, N., and Fuh, G.F. 1998. Prediction of Sand Problems of aHorizontal Well From Sand Production Histories of Perforated Cased Wells.Paper SPE 48975 prepared for presentation at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 27-30 September.
Morita, N., Whitfill, D.L., Massie, I., and Knudsen, T.W. 1989a. Realistic Sand-Production Prediction:Numerical Approach.SPEPE 4(1)15-24; Trans., AIME, 287. SPE-16989.
Morita, N., Whitfill, D.L., Fedde, O.P., and Lovik, T.H. 1989b. Parametric Study of Sand-ProductionPrediction: Analytical Approach. SPEPE 4(1)25-33; Trans., AIME, 287.SPE-16990.
Nordgren, R.P. 1977. Strength of Well Completions. Proc., US Symposium onRock Mechanics, Keystone, Colorado, 22-24 June.
Nouri, A., Vaziri, H., Belhaj, H., and Islam, R. 2003. Comprehensive Transient Modeling ofSand Production in Horizontal Wellbores . Paper SPE 84500 presented at theSPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 5-8 October.
Papamichos, E. and Malmanger, E.M. 1999. A Sand Erosion Model for VolumetricSand Predictions in a North Sea Reservoir . Paper SPE 54007 presented atthe SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Caracas,21-23 April.
Papanastasiou, P. and Vardoulakis, I. 1992. Numerical Treatment ofProgressive Localisation in Relation to Borehole Stability. Int. JournalNumer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 16:389-424.
Perkins, T.K. and Weingarten, J.S. 1988. Stability and Failure of SphericalCavities in Unconsolidated Sand and Weakly Consolidated Rock. Paper SPE18244 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston,2-5 October.
Philips, F.L. and Whitt, S.R. 1983. Success of Openhole Completions inthe Northeast Butterfly Field, Southern Oklahoma. SPEPE 1(3):169-173;Trans., AIME, 281. SPE-11555.
Risnes, R., Bratli, R.K., and Harsrud, P. 1982. Sand Stresses Around a Wellbore.SPEJ 22(6):883-898. SPE-9650.
Sanfilippo F., Ripa,G., Brignoli, M., and Santarelli, F.J. 1995. Economical Management of SandProduction by a Methodology Validated on an Extensive Database of FieldData. Paper SPE 30472 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, Dallas, 22-25 October.
Stavropoulou, M., Papanastasiou, P. and Vardoulakis, I. 1998. CoupledWellbore Erosion and Stability Analysis. Int. J. Num. Anal. Methods Geomech.22:749-769.
Stein, N. 1988. Calculate Drawdown That Will Cause Sand Production. WorldOil. 206: 48-49.
Sulem, J., Vardoulakis, I., Papamichos, E., Oulahna, A., and Tronvoll, J.1999. Elasto-plastic Behaviour of Red Wildmoor Sandstone. Mech. Cohes.-Frict.Mater. 4(3):215-245.
Tronvoll, J. and Halleck, P.M. 1994. Observations of Sand Production andPerforation Cleanup in A Weak Sandstone. Proc., EUROCK' 94. Rotterdam: Balkema,355-360.
Tronvoll, J., Morita, N., and Santarelli, F.J. 1992. Perforation Cavity Stability:Comprehensive Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Analysis. Paper SPE24799 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,Washington DC, 4-7 October.
Tronvoll, J., Papamichos, E., and Kessler, N. 1993. Perforation CavityStability: Investigation of Failure Mechanisms. Geotech. Eng. of HardSoils-Soft Rocks. Rotterdam: Balkema, 1687-1693.
Tronvoll, J., Papamichos, E., Skjarstein, A., and Sanfilippo, F. 1997a. Sand Production in Ultra-WeakSandstones: Is Sand Control Absolutely Necessary? Paper SPE 39042 presentedat the SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference andExhibition, Rio de Janeiro, 30 August-3 September.
Tronvoll, J., Skjarstein, A., and Papamichos, E. 1997b. Sand Production:Mechanical Failure or Hydromechanic Erosion? Int. J. Rock Mech & Min. Sci.34(3/4): 465.
Tronvoll, J., Dusseault, M.B., Sanfilippo, F., and Santarelli, F.J. 2001. The Tools of Sand Management.Paper SPE 71673 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, New Orleans, 30 September-3 October.
van den Hoek, P.J. and Geilikman, M.B. 2003. Prediction of Sand Production Rate inOil and Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 84496 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference, Denver, 5-8 October.
van den Hoek, P.J., Hertogh, G.M.M., Kooijman, A.P., De Bree, Ph., Kenter,C.J., and Papamichos, E. 1996. ANew Concept of Sand Production Prediction: Theory and LaboratoryExperiments . Paper SPE 36418 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Denver, 6-9 October.
Vardoulakis, I., Stavropoulou, M., and Papanastasiou, P. 1996. Hydromechanical Aspects of theSand Production Problem. Transport in Porous Media 22:225-244.
Vaziri, H. and Palmer, I. 1998. Evaluation of Openhole Cavity CompletionTechnique in Coalbed Methane Reservoirs. Paper presented at the North AmericanRock Mechanics Symposium, Cancun, Mexico, 3-5 June.
Vaziri, H., Allan, R., Kidd, G., Bennett, C., Grose, T., Robinson, P., andMalyn, J. 2004. Sanding: ARigorous Examination of the Interplay Between Drawdown, Depletion, Start-upFrequency, and Water Cut. Paper SPE 89895 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26-29 September.
Vaziri, H., Barree, B., Xiao, Y., Palmer, I., and Kutas, M. 2002. What Is the Magic of Water inProducing Sand? Paper SPE 77683 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 29 September-2 October.
Vaziri, H., Wang, X., and Palmer, I. 1997. Wellbore Completion Technique andGeotechnical Parameters Influencing Gas Production. Canadian GeotechnicalJournal. 34:87-101.
Veeken C.A.M., Davies, D.R., Kenter, C.J., and Kooijman, A.P. 1991. Sand Production Prediction Review:Developing an Integrated Approach. Paper SPE 22792 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 6-9 October.
Vermeer, P.A. and de Borst, R. 1984. Non-Associated Plasticity for Soils.Concrete and Rock. 29(3):1-64.
Wang, Y. and Dusseault, M.B. 1996. Sand Production Potential Near Inclined,Perforated Wellbores. Paper 96-27 presented at the CIM Annual TechnicalMeeting, Calgary.
Weingarten, J.S. and Perkins, T.K. 1992. Prediction of Sand Production in GasWells: Methods and Gulf of Mexico Case Studies. JPT 47(7):596-601.SPE-24797-PA.