Sequentially Adapted Flow-Based PEBI Grids for Reservoir Simulation
- Martin Mlacnik (ConocoPhillips) | Louis J. Durlofsky (Stanford University) | Zoltan E. Heinemann (Mining U of Leoben)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- September 2006
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 317 - 327
- 2006. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 5.3.1 Flow in Porous Media, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 5.5.1 Simulator Development, 4.3.4 Scale, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.5.3 Scaling Methods, 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc), 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation
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A technique for the sequential generation of perpendicular-bisectional (PEBI) grids adapted to flow information is presented and applied. The procedure includes a fine-scale flow solution, the generation of an initial streamline-isopotential grid, grid optimization, and upscaling. The grid optimization is accomplished through application of a hybrid procedure with gradient and Laplacian smoothing steps, while the upscaling is based on a global-local procedure that makes use of the global solution used in the grid-determination step. The overall procedure is successfully applied to a complex channelized reservoir model involving changing well conditions. The gridding and upscaling procedures presented here may also be suitable for use with other types of structured or unstructured grid systems.
Modern geological and geostatistical tools provide highly detailed descriptions of the spatial variation of reservoir properties, resulting in fine-grid models consisting of 107 to 108 gridblocks. As a consequence of this high level of detail, these models cannot be used directly in numerical reservoir simulators, but need to be coarsened significantly. Coarsening requires the averaging of rock parameters from the fine scale to the coarse scale. This process is referred to as upscaling. For simulation of flow in porous media, the upscaling of permeability is of particular interest. A large body of literature exists on this topic; for a comprehensive review of existing techniques, see Durlofsky (2005).
To preserve as much of the geological information of the fine grid as possible, the grid coarsening should not be performed uniformly, but with more refinement in areas that are expected to have large impact on the flow, including structural features, such as faults. Although grid-generation techniques based on purely static, nonflow-based considerations have been shown to produce reasonable results(Garcia et al. 1992), the application of flow-based grids is often preferable. Flow-based grids require the solution of some type of fine-scale problem. They are then constructed by exploiting the information obtained from streamlines (and possibly isopotentials) either directly or indirectly. Depending on the type of grid used, points will be defined as cell vertices or nodes, resulting in either a corner-point geometry or point-distributed grid. Several gridding techniques for reservoir simulation have been introduced along these lines, as we now discuss.
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