Condensate Bank Characterization from Well Test Data and Fluid PVT Properties
- Manijeh Bozorgzadeh (Imperial College) | Alain C. Gringarten (Imperial College)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- October 2006
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 596 - 611
- 2006. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2 Fluid Characterization, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 2.5.1 Fracture design and containment, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 2.2.2 Perforating, 5.4.3 Gas Cycling, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 4.6 Natural Gas, 7.5.3 Professional Registration/Cetification, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 5.5.8 History Matching, 5.8.8 Gas-condensate reservoirs, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State
- 8 in the last 30 days
- 2,450 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Published well-test analyses in gas/condensate reservoirs in which the pressure has dropped below the dewpoint are usually based on a two- or three-region radial composite well-test interpretation model to represent condensate dropout around the wellbore and initial gas in place away from the well. Gas/condensate-specific results from well-test analysis are the mobility and storativity ratios between the regions and the condensate-bank radius. For a given region, however, well-test analysis cannot uncouple the storativity ratio from the region radius, and the storativity ratio must be estimated independently to obtain the correct bank radius. In most cases, the storativity ratio is calculated incorrectly, which explains why condensate bank radii from well-test analysis often differ greatly from those obtained by numerical compositional simulation.
In this study, a new method is introduced to estimate the storativity ratios between the different zones from buildup data when the saturation profile does not change during the buildup. Application of the method is illustrated with the analysis of a transient-pressure test in a gas/condensate field in the North Sea. The analysis uses single-phase pseudopressures and two- and three-zone radial composite well-test interpretation models to yield the condensate-bank radius. The calculated condensate-bank radius is validated by verifying analytical well-test analyses with compositional simulations that include capillary number and inertia effects.
Introduction and Background
When the bottomhole flowing pressure falls below the dewpoint in a gas/condensate reservoir, retrograde condensation occurs, and a bank of condensate builds up around the producing well. This process creates concentric zones with different liquid saturations around the well (Fevang and Whitson 1996; Kniazeff and Nvaille 1965; Economides et al. 1987). The zone away from the well, where the reservoir pressure is still above the dewpoint, contains the original gas. The condensate bank around the wellbore contains two phases, reservoir gas and liquid condensate, and has a reduced gas mobility, except in the immediate vicinity of the well at high production rates, where the relative permeability to gas is greater than in the bank because of capillary number effects (Danesh et al. 1994; Boom et al. 1995; Henderson et al. 1998; Mott et al. 1999).
|File Size||4 MB||Number of Pages||16|
Afidick, D., Kaczorowski, N.J., andBette, S. 1994. ProductionPerformance of a Retrograde Gas Reservoir: A Case Study of the Arun Field.Paper SPE 28749 presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference,Melbourne, Australia, 7-10 November. DOI: 10.2118/28749-MS.
Allen, F.H. and Roe, R.P. 1950.Performance Characteristics of a Volumetric Condensate Reservoir.Trans., AIME 189: 83-90.
Aly, A.M., El-Banbi, A.H., Holditch, S.A.et al. 2001. Optimization of GasCondensate Reservoir Development by Coupling Reservoir Modeling and HydraulicFracturing Design. Paper SPE 68175 presented at the SPE Middle East OilShow and Conference, Bahrain, 17-20 March. DOI: 10.2118/68175-MS.
Ambastha, A.K. 1988. Pressure TransientAnalysis for Composite Systems. PhD thesis, Stanford U., Stanford, California(October 1988) 193.
App, J.F. and Mohanty, M. 2002. Gas andCondensate Relative Permeability at Near Critical Conditions: Capillary andReynolds Number Dependence. J. of Pet. Sci. & Eng. 36(16): 111-126. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(02)00269-3.
Barnum, R.S., Brinkman, F.P., Richardson,T.W., and Spillette, A.G. 1995. Gas Condensate Reservoir Behavior:Productivity and Recovery Reduction Due to Condensation. Paper SPE 30767presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 22-25October. DOI: 10.2118/30767-MS.
Bøe, A. and Whitson, C.H. 1989. Two-Phase Pressure Test Analysis.SPEFE 4 (4): 601-610; Trans., AIME, 287.SPE-10224-PA. DOI: 10.2118/10224-PA.
Boom, W., Wit, K., Schulte, A.M., Oedai,S., Zeelenberg, J.P.W., and Maas, J.G. 1995. Experimental Evidence for ImprovedCondensate Mobility at Near-Wellbore Flow Conditions. Paper SPE 30766presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 22-25October. DOI: 10.2118/30766-MS.
Brown, L.P. 1985. Pressure Transient Behavior of theComposite Reservoir. Paper SPE 14316 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, 22-26 September. DOI:10.2118/14316-MS.
Chu, W.C. and Shank, G.D. 1993. A New Model For a Fractured Well in aRadial, Composite Reservoir. SPEFE 8 (3): 225-232.SPE-20579-PA. DOI: 10.2118/20579-PA.
Coats, K.H. and Smart, G.T. 1986. Application of a Regression-Based EOSPVT Program to Laboratory Data. SPERE 1 (3): 277-299.SPE-11197-PA. DOI: 10.2118/11197-PA.
Danesh, A., Henderson, G.D., Tehrani,D.H., and Peden, J.M. 1994. Gas condensate recovery studies. Presented at theDTI Improved Oil Recovery and Research Dissemination Seminar, London, 22June.
Daungkaew, S. 2002. New development inwell test analysis. PhD thesis, Centre for Petroleum Studies, Imperial CollegeLondon (October 2002).
Daungkaew, S., Ross, F., and Gringarten,A.C. 2002. Well Test Investigation of Condensate Drop-Out Behavior in a NorthSea Lean Gas Condensate Reservoir. Paper SPE 77548 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 29 September-2October.
Economides, M.J., Dehghani, K., Ogbe,D.O., and Ostermann, R.D. 1987. Hysteresis Effects for Gas CondensateWells Undergoing Build-up Tests Below the Dew Point Pressure. Paper SPE16748 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas,27-30 September. DOI: 10.2118/16748-MS.
Engineer, R. 1985. Cal Canal Field, California: CaseHistory of a Tight and Abnormally Pressured Gas Condensate Reservoir. PaperSPE 13650 presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, Bakersfield,California, 27-29 March. DOI: 10.2118/13650-MS.
Fetkovich, M.D., Guerrero, E.T., andFetkovich, M.J. 1986. Oil and GasRelative Permeabilities Determined From Rate-Time Performance Data. PaperSPE 15431 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, NewOrleans, 5-8 Oct. DOI: 10.2118/15431-MS.
Fevang, Ø. and Whitson, C.H. 1996. Modeling Gas-Condensate WellDeliverability. SPERE 11 (4): 221-230. SPE-30714-PA.DOI: 10.2118/30714-PA.
Forchheimer, P. 1901. Wasserbewegungdurch Boden. ZVD1 45: 1781.
Fussell, D.D. 1973. Single-Well Performance Predictionsfor Gas Condensate Reservoirs. JPT 25 (7): 860-870.SPE-4072-PA. DOI: 10.2118/4072-PA.
Geertsma, J. 1974. Estimating the Coefficient of InertialResistance in Fluid Flow Through Porous Media. SPEJ 14(5): 445-450. SPE-4706-PA. DOI: 10.2118/4706-PA.
Gondouin, M., Iffly, R., and Husson, J.1967. An Attempt to Predict theTime Dependence of Well Deliverability in Gas Condensate Fields.SPEJ 7 (2): 113-124; Trans., AIME, 240.SPE-1478-PA. DOI: 10.2118/1478-PA.
Gringarten, A.C., Al-Lamki, A.,Daungkaew, S., Mott, R., and Whittle, T.M. 2000. Well test analysis in gas-condensatereservoirs. Paper SPE 62920 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1-4 October. DOI:10.2118/62920-MS.
Henderson, G.D., Danesh, A., Tehrani,D.H., Al-Shaidi, S., and Peden, J.M. 1998. Measurement and correlation of gascondensate relative permeability by the steady-state method. SPEREE1 (2): 134-140. SPE-30770-PA. DOI: 10.2118/30770-PA.
Henderson, G.D., Danesh, A., Tehrani,D.H., and Al-Kharusi, B. 2000a. The Relative Significance of PositiveCoupling and Inertial Effects on Gas Condensate Relative Permeabilities at HighVelocity. Paper SPE 62933 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conferenceand Exhibition, Dallas, 1-4 October. DOI: 10.2118/62933-MS.
Henderson, G.D., Danesh, A., Tehrani,D.H., and Al-Kharusi, B. 2000b. Generating Reliable Gas Condensate RelativePermeability Data Used to Develop a Correlation with Capillary Number. J. ofPet. Sci. & Eng. 25: 79-91 (January). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(00)00004-8.
Henderson, G.D., Danesh, A., Tehrani,D.H., and Al-Kharusi, B. 2001. Effect of Positive Rate Sensitivity and Inertiaon Gas Condensate Relative Permeability at High Velocity. PetroleumGeoscience 7 (6): 45-50.
Jamiolahmady, M., Danesh, A., Henderson,G.D., Tehrani, D.H., and Al-Kharusi, B. 2003. Variations of Gas-Condensate RelativePermeability With Production Rate at Near-Wellbore Conditions: A GeneralCorrelation. Paper SPE 83960 presented at the Offshore Europe Conference,Aberdeen, 2-5 September. DOI: 10.2118/83960-MS.
Jones, J.R., Vo, D.T., and Raghavan, R.1989. Interpretation ofPressure-Buildup Responses in Gas-Condensate Wells. SPEFE4 (1): 93-104. SPE-15535-PA. DOI: 10.2118/15535-PA.
Kniazeff, V.J. and Nvaille, S.A. 1965. Two-Phase Flow of VolatileHydrocarbons. SPEJ 5 (1): 37-44; Trans., AIME,234. SPE-962-PA. DOI: 10.2118/962-PA.
Li, K. and Firoozabadi, A. 2000. Phenomenological Modeling of CriticalCondensate Saturation and Relative Permeabilities in Gas/CondensateSystems. SPEJ 5 (2): 138-147. SPE-56014-PA. DOI:10.2118/56014-PA.
Liu, J.S., Wilkins, J.R., Al-Qahtani,M.Y., and Al-Awami, A.A. 2001. Modeling a Rich Gas CondensateReservoir With Composition Grading and Faults. Paper SPE 68178 presented atthe SPE Middle East Oil Show, Bahrain, 17-20 March. DOI:10.2118/68178-MS.
Merrill, L.S. Jr., Kazemi, H., andGogarty, W.B. 1974. PressureFalloff Analysis in Reservoirs With Fluid Banks. JPT 26(7): 809-18; Trans., AIME, 257. SPE-4528-PA. DOI:10.2118/4528-PA.
Mott, R. 2003. Engineering Calculations ofGas-Condensate-Well Productivity. SPEREE 6 (5):298-306. SPE-86298-PA. DOI: 10.2118/86298-PA.
Mott, R., Cable, A., and Spearing, M.1999. A New Method of MeasuringRelative Permeabilities for Calculating Gas-Condensate Well Deliverability.Paper SPE 56484 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, Houston, 3-6 October. DOI: 10.2118/56484-MS.
Mott, R., Cable, A., and Spearing, M.2000. Measurements and Simulationof Inertial and High Capillary Number Flow Phenomena in Gas-Condensate RelativePermeability. Paper SPE 62932 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1-4 October. DOI:10.2118/62932-MS.
Novosad, Z. 1996. Composition and Phase Changes inTesting and Producing Retrograde Gas Wells. SPERE11(4): 231-235. SPE-35645-PA. DOI: 10.2118/35645-PA.
Odeh, A.S. 1969. Flow Test Analysis for a Well WithRadial Discontinuity. JPT 21 (2): 207-210; Trans.,AIME, 246. SPE-2157-PA. DOI: 10.2118/2157-PA.
Olarewaju, J.S. and Lee, W.J. 1989. A Comprehensive Application of aComposite Reservoir Model to Pressure-Transient Analysis. SPERE4 (3): 325-331. SPE-16345-PA. DOI: 10.2118/16345-PA.
Olarewaju, J.S., Lee, W.J., andLancaster, D.E. 1991. Type- andDecline-Curve Analysis With Composite Models. SPEFE6(1): 79-85. SPE-17055-PA. DOI: 10.2118/
Ramey, H.J. Jr. 1970. ApproximateSolutions for Unsteady Liquid Flow in Composite Reservoirs. J. Cdn. Pet.Tech. (January-March) 32-37.
van Poollen, H.K. 1964. Radius ofDrainage and Stabilization Time Equations. Oil & Gas J. (14September) 139-147.
van Poollen, H.K. 1965. Transient TestsFind Fire Front in an In-situ Combustion Project. Oil & Gas J. (1February) 78-80.
Vo, D.T., Jones, J.R., and Raghavan, R.1989. Performance Predictions forGas Condensate Reservoirs. SPEFE 4 (4): 576-584;Trans., AIME, 287. SPE-16984-PA. DOI:10.2118/16984-PA.
Wheaton, R.J. and Zhang, H.R. 2000. Condensate Banking Dynamics in GasCondensate fields: Compositional Changes and Condensate Accumulation AroundProduction Wells. Paper SPE 62930 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1-4 October. DOI:10.2118/62930-MS.
Whitson, C.H. and Torp, S.B. 1983. Evaluating Constant-Volume DepletionData. JPT 35(3): 610-620. SPE-10067-PA. DOI:10.2118/10067-PA.
Whitson, C.H., Fevang, Ø., and Saevareid,A. 1999. Gas Condensate RelativePermeability for Well Calculations. Paper SPE 56476 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 3-6 October. DOI:10.2118/56476-MS.
Whitson, C.H., Norvik, H., Hvidsten, J.,and Austad, T. 1983. Practical Aspects of Characterizing Gas-Condensates. Paperpresented at the Conference on North Sea Condensate Reservoirs and TheirDevelopment, London, 24-25 May.