Exploring Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Completion in Gas/Condensate Reservoirs: West African Examples
- C. Shah Kabir (Chevron Corp.) | Ming-Ming Chang (Chevron Corp.) | Okhtay Taghizadeh D.C. (U. of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2006
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 77 - 85
- 2006. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 2 Well Completion, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.2.2 Perforating, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 5.7.5 Economic Evaluations, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 3.3.4 Downhole Monitoring and Control, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.8.8 Gas-condensate reservoirs, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.5.8 History Matching, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 4.6.2 Liquified Natural Gas (LNG), 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 2.3 Completion Monitoring Systems/Intelligent Wells
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 718 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
This paper explores multiple completion options in gas/condensate reservoirs with compositional simulations. Besides intelligent-well completion (IWC), options included commingling two reservoirs of contrasting conductivity (permeability-thickness product) and selectively perforating zones or reservoirs to offset the permeability contrast. At the outset, a value-of-information exercise suggested probing downhole sensing and completion issues in a stacked-reservoir situation. The ultimate objective of this study was to ascertain economic completion strategy so that depletion of reservoirs occurs evenly at the project's termination.
Single-well compositional simulations formed the backbone for our evaluation of three completion options. Each reservoir was characterized by history matching drillstem tests (DSTs). Experimental design (ED) reduced the large number of simulation runs to a manageable few for probabilistic forecasting. Comparison of three options suggested that all of them nearly produced the desired results of maximum liquid recovery despite a 10-fold difference in permeability between the two horizons.
Results further showed that condensate banking was a nonissue in this high-kh system of reservoirs as far as the gas deliverability is concerned. In other words, although 40 to 60% degradation in the gas productivity index (PI) occurred, gas deliverability remained intact. In contrast, both the liquid PI and rate declined with time owing to phase-behavior and relative permeability issues. Finally, we learned that the net income generated by IWC is no better than the specific-perforation completion (SPC).
IWC is primarily about proactive, on-time intervention through monitoring and control of flow in and out of the well. Economic imperatives, particularly in deepwater settings, have generated intense interest in IWC technology. Of course, the ability to commingle marginal reservoirs in any situation is another attractive application of IWC.
To underscore IWC's importance, various papers have appeared in the literature describing instrumentation and control (Robinson and Mathieson 1998; Rundgren et al. 2001; Tourillon et al. 2001), reservoir modeling (Ostvik et al. 2001; Borch 2001; Yu et al. 2000; Akram et al. 2001; Nielsen et al. 2001; Jalali 1998), and field implementations (Lau et al. 2001; Erlandsen 2000; Glandt 2003). Most papers describe the well-centric benefits of IWC in horizontal and/or multilateral wells in complex lithologies, with the exception of Jalali (1998) and Glandt (2003). In fact, Glandt provides a comprehensive review of this technology, particularly from the viewpoint of reservoir engineering. The use of probabilistic analysis (van der Poela and Jansen 2004) to assess the value of IWC in a complex reservoir scenario was also explored for oil wells. This body of work demonstrates the promise of IWC because the technology is in growth mode, with 5 or so years of collective industry experience.
The main motivation of this study stemmed from understanding the local regulatory body's completion philosophy. Derived primarily from the oilwell analog, the current regulation prevents layer commingling when production occurs from different geologic horizons. This regulation does not preclude commingling layers of contrasting properties, separated by shales, so long as they are within the same geologic unit. Therefore, our incentive was to learn how one should approach the completion issue within a single geologic unit and in multiple geologic units.
In this study, we probe the benefits of IWC or its analog in a depletion-drive system, where primary production dominates. Three completion scenarios were considered: (1) commingling with downhole control, (2) commingling without downhole control by selective interval perforating, and (3) conventional commingled completion. Our objective was to eliminate reservoir crossflow without differential depletion among the reservoirs in the first two completion options.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||9|
Akram, N., Hicking, S., Blythe, P., Kavanagh, P., Reijnen, P., andMathieson, D.: "Intelligent WellTechnology in Mature Assets," paper SPE 71822 presented at the 2001 SPEOffshore Europe Conference, Aberdeen, 4-7 September.
Ayyalasomayajula, P., Silpngarmlers, N., and Kamath, J.: "Well Deliverability Predictions for aLow-Permeability Gas/Condensate Reservoir ," paper SPE 95529 presented atthe 2005 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9-12October.
Borch, C.: "Applied MultisourcePressure Data Integration for Dynamic Reservoir Characterization, Reservoir,and Production Management: A Case History From the Siri Field, OffshoreDenmark," paper SPE 71629 presented at the 2001 SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September-3 October.
Erlandsen, S.M.: "ProductionExperience From Smart Wells in the Oseberg Field," paper SPE 62953presented at the 2000 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas,1-4 October.
Fetkovich, M.J., Bradley, M.D., Works, A.M., and Thrasher, T.S.: "Depletion Performance of LayeredReservoirs Without Crossflow," SPEFE (September 1990) 5, No.3, 310; Trans., AIME, 289.
Fetkovich, M.J., Ebbs, D.J. Jr., and Voelker, J.J.: "Multiwell, Multilayer Model toEvaluate Infill Drilling Potential in the Oklahoma Hugoton Field,"SPEFE (August 1994) 9, No. 3, 162.
Friedmann, F., Chawathe, A., and Larue, D.K.: "Assessing Uncertainty in ChannelizedReservoirs Using Experimental Designs ," SPEREE (August 2003)6, No. 4, 264.
Glandt, C.A.: "ReservoirAspects of Smart Wells," paper SPE 81107 presented at the 2003 SPE LatinAmerican and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Port of Spain,Trinidad, West Indies, 27-30 April.
Jalali, Y., Bussear, T., and Sharma, S.: "Intelligent Completion Systems—TheReservoir Rationale," paper SPE 50587 presented at the 1998 EuropeanPetroleum Conference, The Hague, 20-22 October.
Kabir, C.S., Badru, O., Eme, V., and Carr, B.S.: "Assessing Producibility of a Region'sGas/Condensate Reservoirs," paper SPE 95531 presented at the 2005 SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9-12 October.
Kabir, C.S., Chawathe, A., Jenkins, S.D., Olayomi, A.J., Aigbe, C., andFaparusi, D.B.: "Developing NewFields Using Probabilistic Reservoir Forecasting," SPEREE (February2004) 7, No. 1, 15.
Kabir, C.S. and Landa, J.L.: "Interpreting Transient Tests inHigh-Permeability, Gas-Condensate Reservoirs ," paper 89752 presented atthe 2004 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26-29September.
Lau, H.C., Deutman, R., Al-Sikaiti, S., and Adimora, V.: "Intelligent Internal Gas InjectionWells Revitalise Mature S.W. Ampa Field ," paper SPE 72108 presented at the2001 Asia Pacific Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 6-9October.
Nielsen, V.B.J., Piedras, J., Stimatz, G.P., and Webb, T.R.: "Aconcagua, Camden Hills, and King'sPeak Fields, Gulf of Mexico Employ Intelligent Completion Technology in UniqueField Development Scenario," paper SPE 71675 presented at the 2001 SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September-3October.
Ostvik, E., Hansen, H.B., Rasmussen, L., Malmanger, E.M., Tønnessen, S.H.,Browne, P.L., and Williamson, J.: "Increasing Production With anInnovative Through Flow Line (TFL) Multi-Zone Completion Design for a MajorNorwegian Operator," paper SPE 71666 presented at the 2001 SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September-3 October.
Plackett, R.L. and Burman, J.P.: "The Design of Optimum MultifactorialExperiments," Biometrika, vol. XXXIII, University Press, Cambridge, U.K.(1943) 305.
Robinson, M.C. and Mathieson, D.: "Integration of an Intelligent CompletionInto an Existing Subsea Production System," JPT (October 1998)50, No. 10, 34.
Rundgren, G., Algeroy, J., Hestenes, L.E., Jokela, T., and Raw, I.: "Installation of Advanced Completionsin the Osberg 30/9-B-38 B Well," paper SPE 71677 presented at the 2001 SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September-3October.
Tourillon, V., Randall, E.R., and Kennedy, B.: "An Integrated Electric Flow-ControlSystem Installed in the F-22 Wytch Farm Well," paper SPE 71531 presented atthe 2001 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30September-3 October.
van der Poela, R. and Jansen, J.D.: "Probabilistic Analysisof the Value of a Smart Well for Sequential Production of a StackedReservoir," J. Pet. Sci. Eng. (October 2004) 44, 155.
Yeten, B., Brouwer, D.R., Durlofsky, L.J., and Aziz, K.: "Decision Analysis UnderUncertainty for Smart Well Deployment," J. Pet. Sci. Eng. (August2004) 43, 183.
Yu, S., Davies, D.R., and Sherrard, D.W.: "The Modeling of Advanced ‘IntelligentWell'?An Application ," paper SPE 62950 presented at the 2000 SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1-4 October.