Reaction Kinetics of the Uptake of Chromium (III) Acetate by Polyacrylamide
- Rajeev Jain (U. of Kansas) | C. Stanley McCool (U. of Kansas) | Don W. Green (U. of Kansas) | G. Paul Willhite (U. of Kansas) | Michael J. Michnick (U. of Kansas)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- September 2005
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 247 - 255
- 2005. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.1 Hydrates, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating
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Gelled polymer treatments applied in injection and production wells are usedto alter fluid flow in oil reservoirs so that oil production is increased andwater production is decreased. A common gel used in field treatments is made bycrosslinking partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) with chromium acetate.The initial step of the crosslink is the uptake of chromium acetate by acarboxyl group on the HPAM. The kinetics of the uptake reaction was studied asfunctions of the concentrations of chromium, HPAM, and hydrogen ions. The datawere regressed to derive a rate expression for the disappearance of unreactedCr(III) in the gelant.
The application of crosslinked polymers gels for permeability modificationof petroleum reservoirs has been effective in improving displacementefficiency, increasing crude oil production, and reducing water production. Thetreatment of an injection well consists of injecting an aqueous solutioncontaining polymer and a crosslinker into the high-permeability zones orfractures of the reservoir where the polymer and crosslinker react to form a 3Dgel network, reducing the effective permeability of these zones. Displacingfluids injected after the treatment are diverted into the previously unswept,low-permeability zones resulting in additional oil recovery and less waterproduction. Gel treatments applied in production wells can also reduce waterproduction and increase oil production, although the mechanisms are not as welldefined.
One widely used gel system is an aqueous solution of partially hydrolyzedpolyacrylamide (HPAM) and a chromium(III) salt. Chromium(III) forms a complexion in solution and reacts by a ligand-exchange reaction with the carboxylate,or hydrolyzed, groups on the polymer molecules to form crosslinks resulting ina network or gel. These reactions are described by
where L represents a ligand in the chromium complex and -CO 2 represents acarboxylate group on a polymer molecule (P1 or P2). The first reaction ofpolymer P1 with the chromium complex is called the uptake reaction. Thereaction of a second polymer, P2, with the chromium complex creates a crosslinkbetween the polymers and is termed the crosslink reaction.
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