Reaction Kinetics of the Uptake of Chromium (III) Acetate by Polyacrylamide
- Rajeev Jain (U. of Kansas) | C. Stanley McCool (U. of Kansas) | Don W. Green (U. of Kansas) | G. Paul Willhite (U. of Kansas) | Michael J. Michnick (U. of Kansas)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- September 2005
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 247 - 255
- 2005. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.1 Hydrates, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 467 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Gelled polymer treatments applied in injection and production wells are usedto alter fluid flow in oil reservoirs so that oil production is increased andwater production is decreased. A common gel used in field treatments is made bycrosslinking partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) with chromium acetate.The initial step of the crosslink is the uptake of chromium acetate by acarboxyl group on the HPAM. The kinetics of the uptake reaction was studied asfunctions of the concentrations of chromium, HPAM, and hydrogen ions. The datawere regressed to derive a rate expression for the disappearance of unreactedCr(III) in the gelant.
The application of crosslinked polymers gels for permeability modificationof petroleum reservoirs has been effective in improving displacementefficiency, increasing crude oil production, and reducing water production. Thetreatment of an injection well consists of injecting an aqueous solutioncontaining polymer and a crosslinker into the high-permeability zones orfractures of the reservoir where the polymer and crosslinker react to form a 3Dgel network, reducing the effective permeability of these zones. Displacingfluids injected after the treatment are diverted into the previously unswept,low-permeability zones resulting in additional oil recovery and less waterproduction. Gel treatments applied in production wells can also reduce waterproduction and increase oil production, although the mechanisms are not as welldefined.
One widely used gel system is an aqueous solution of partially hydrolyzedpolyacrylamide (HPAM) and a chromium(III) salt. Chromium(III) forms a complexion in solution and reacts by a ligand-exchange reaction with the carboxylate,or hydrolyzed, groups on the polymer molecules to form crosslinks resulting ina network or gel. These reactions are described by
where L represents a ligand in the chromium complex and -CO 2 represents acarboxylate group on a polymer molecule (P1 or P2). The first reaction ofpolymer P1 with the chromium complex is called the uptake reaction. Thereaction of a second polymer, P2, with the chromium complex creates a crosslinkbetween the polymers and is termed the crosslink reaction.
|File Size||311 KB||Number of Pages||8|
1. Lockhart, T.P. and Albonico, P.: "New Chemistry for the Placement ofChromium(III)/Polymer Gels in High-Temperature Reservoirs," SPEPF (November1994) 273; Trans., AIME, 297.
2. Tackett, J.E.: "Characterization ofChromium(III) Acetate in Aqueous Solution," Applied Spectroscopy (1989) 43,490.
3. Albonico, P., Burrafato, G., and Lockhart, T.P.: "Polyacrylamide Gels FormedWith Cr+3 Ion and Cr(Acetate)3: Thermodynamically and Kinetically ControlledCrosslinking Reactions," Journal of Polymer Science: Part A: PolymerChemistry (1992) 30, No. 6, 1071.
4. Hamm, R.E. et al.: "Complex Ions of Chromium. VIII.Mechanism of Reaction of Organic Acid Anions with Chromium(III)," J.American Chemical Society (1958) 80, 4469.
5. Banerjea, D. and Chaudhari, S.D.: "Kinetics Studies on theFormation of Metal Chelates-II: Reaction of Hexa-aquo-chromium(III) Ion WithGlycine and the Nature of the Product Formed in Weakly Acidic AqueousSolution," J. Inorganic Nuclear Chemisty (1968) 30, 871.
6. Khan, A.K. and Ud-din, K.: "Anation ofHexaaquochromium(III) by Glycine," J. InorganicNuclear Chemistry(1981) 43, 1082.
7. Hartley, F.R.: "Studies in Chrome Mordanting: V. Kinetics and Mechanismof the Interaction of Chromium(III) Salts With Wool," Australian J. Chem.(1970) 23, 275.
8. Hunt, J.A.: "An Experimental Study of the Kinetics of the CrosslinkingReaction Between Chromium(III) and Polyacrylamide," PhD dissertation, U. ofKansas, Lawrence, Kansas (1987).
9. Montanari, L., Scotti, R., and Lockhart, T.P.: "Kinetics and Mechanism of theReaction of Hydrated Chromium(III) With Partially HydrolyzedPolyacrylamide," Macromolecules (1994) 27, 3341.
10. Dona, C.L.: "An Experimental Study of the Uptake and Gelation Reactionsof Cr(III) Oligomers With Polyacrylamide," PhD dissertation, U. of Kansas,Lawrence, Kansas (1993).
11. Jain, R.: "An Experimental Study of the Kinetics of the Chromium(III)Acetate-Polyacrylamide Uptake Reaction," MS thesis, U. of Kansas, Lawrence,Kansas (2004).
12. Verner, J.H.: "ExplicitRunge-Kutta Methods with Estimates of the Local Truncation Error," SIAMJournal of Numerical Analysis (August 1978) 15, No. 4, 772.
13. Hunt, J.A. et al.: "AStudy of Cr(III)-Polyacrylamide Reaction Kinetics by Equilibrium Dialysis," AIChE Journal (February 1989) 35, No. 2, 250.
14. Lockhart, T.P.: "ChemicalProperties of Chromium/Polyacrylamide Gels," SPE Advanced Technology Series(April 1994) 14, No. 2, 199.