Flow in Perforated Pipes: A Comparison of Models and Experiments
- Thomas Clemo (Boise State U.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- May 2006
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 302 - 311
- 2006. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 3.3.6 Integrated Modeling, 2.2.2 Perforating, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 2.3 Completion Monitoring Systems/Intelligent Wells
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- 656 since 2007
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A model of pressure losses in perforated pipes that includes the influence of inflow through the pipe walls compares favorably with past and recent experimental studies. The single-phase model was developed in 1987, but it is not generally known in the petroleum industry. This model is compared to three experiments: one using air and two using water. The model must be manipulated to conform with the way individual experimenters report their findings. In general there is good agreement. Where there is poor agreement, the cause may be experimental artifacts. A second model fails to match experimental results when the pipe geometry changes significantly.
With the advent of horizontal drilling technology, flow in long perforated pipes has become an important topic. Numerous investigations (Dikken 1990; Penmatcha et al. 1997; Ouyang et al. 1998; Tang et al. 2000; Wolfstiener et al. 2000; Valvatne et al. 2001; Ouyang and Aziz 2001) have shown that pressure losses in horizontal pipes and multiwell configurations significantly influence the distribution of flow to the pipes. More flow enters the heel than the toe of the pipe. While the influence of inflow through the pipe walls has been recognized as an important effect, wellbore flow models used in these studies either ignore the influence of perforations or use a flawed representation. Recent experimental investigations (Ihara et al. 1994; Kloster 1990; Su 1996; Yuan 1997; Yuan et al. 1999) of liquid flow in perforated pipes and channels allow models of the influence of inflow on pressure losses to be tested for a variety of pipe configurations. Agreement with experiments using air flow (Olson and Eckert 1966; Yuan and Finkelstein 1956) can provide a strong indication that a model developed with water is robust.
Numerous models of pressure losses within pipes with inflow exist. The three investigated here are Ouyang (1998), Yuan et al. (1999), and Siwon (1987). Only Siwon's model compares favorably with all the experiments described in this paper. I will concentrate on the comparison with Siwon's model, with some review of the predictions using Yuan et al. The model of Ouyang does not have the correct functional dependence. It is mentioned because it seems to be the most widely used.
While Siwon's model is consistent with the experiments conducted by Olson and Eckert (1966), Su (1996), and Yuan (1997), there are some data that do not agree with Siwon's model. In this situation it is important to keep as much transparency as possible so that readers can form their own opinions. The three experiments are quite different, which provides a wide basis for comparison. Unfortunately, the presentation of these data is also quite different. To preserve the transparency of the original data, the models have been manipulated to fit the original data presentation.
There are two basic conclusions: (1) Perforations cause an increase in head gradient with and without inflow through the perforations; and (2) Inflow causes larger head gradients than would occur without inflow, but ?15% less than would be expected, assuming a constant friction factor and considering only the momentum increase induced by increasing flows.
The development starts with the momentum-balance equation—the basis for understanding pressure losses in pipes. Three derivative forms of the balance equation corresponding to different ways of presenting the experimental data are presented. Next comes the model and experiments of Siwon, followed by the model of Yuan et al. Then, three experiments are described and compared to the models.
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