Effect of Low Frequency Percussion in Drilling Hard Rock
- E. Topanelian Jr. (Gulf Research & Development Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- July 1958
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 55 - 57
- 1958. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 4.3.4 Scale
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In the development of a fluid-operated hammer drill for accelerated penetration of hard rock formations in oil wells, a research investigation was conducted to evaluate the percussion effects obtained with different design characteristics and to determine the possibilities of percussion in the low frequency range. Tests were conducted on granite blocks and comparable impact forces were measured with a load cell under selected test conditions. These full-scale laboratory tests provided an evaluation of the effectiveness of percussion which was further supported by actual downhole field performance.
While much pertinent data have been presented by other investigators the method of evaluation described in this article resulted in good correlation between laboratory and field performance and may be applicable in other low frequency percussion developments.
For these tests the bit was held stationary and the test block was rotated and forced upward against the bit by a hydraulically-lifted rotary table. "Weight on bit" was calculated from pressure readings on the fluid system of the lifting cylinders-corrected for tare and friction. Percussion was obtained with several tubular hammers of different weights up to 320 lb. These were lifted mechanically and allowed to drop by gravity from various heights onto a slidably-mounted bit sub or "floating anvil" for calibration of the load cell response with known kinetic energy of the hammers. During evaluation of percussion effects, the hammers were hydraulically operated to provide a range of percussion frequencies up to 1,020 blows per minute delivered to the anvil.
To obtain comparable test readings, the load cell of the strain gauge type, was attached to the bottom of the anvil or bit sub in place of the bit. The load cell rested on a typical granite test block mounted on the drilling table. The latter was hydraulically supported as in the actual drilling operation. The effect of support resistance was the same for all tools when calibrating. Impact forces so determined were thus directly comparable with one another for the purposes of this investigation.
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