Pressure Maintenance by Fluid Injection in the North Pembina Cardium Unit No. 1
- H. Groeneveld (Socony Mobil Oil Of Canada, Ltd.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- September 1964
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 977 - 982
- 1964. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 4.6 Natural Gas, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.4.9 Miscible Methods, 5.4.1 Waterflooding
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The North Pembina Cardium unit No. 1, the largest unit in The Pembina field, Alberta. Canada. covers a surface area of approximately 45,500 acres and has been developed on 80-acre spacing. Socony Mobil Oil of Canada, Ltd. is the operator. The unit was formed in Sept., 1959 for the purpose of maintaining reservoir pressure by fluid injection in the Cardium reservoir using large injection patterns. The pressure-maintenance project consists of 32,700 acres under water flood and 12,800 acres under miscible flood. The pattern arrangement includes five 2.560 acre 41-spots for the miscible flood, surrounded by 320-acre inverted nine-spots for the water flood. The Cardium sand which is sporadically overlain by a conglomerate section is characterized by severe stratification. Basic reservoir data for different areas within The unit are presented. Reservoir performance for The miscible flood as well as for the water flood is discussed. Although the performance history is short it is evident that formation stratification has a dominant effect on the reservoir performance.
The Pembina field is located in the Province of Alberta in Western Canada, about 70 miles southwest of the city of Edmonton, as shown in Fig. 1. This large field which now covers an area of approximately 616,000 acres, was discovered in 1953 by Socony Mobil Oil of Canada, Ltd. The reservoir is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Cardium sand at a depth of about 5,000 ft. Neither bottom water nor free gas has been found. The recovery of oil by solution-gas-drive mechanism has been estimated between 13 and 16 per cent of the original oil in place. About 65 per cent of the developed area of the field is under pressure maintenance by water flooding, miscible flooding or gas flooding. To facilitate the administration of allowables, the Alberta Oil and Gas Conservation Board has divided the pressure maintenance area into approximately 100 "projects". The largest project. is the North Pembina Cardium unit No. 1, covering more than 45,500 acres. Fig. 2 shows the outline of the North Pembina Cardium unit No. 1 and its location within the Pembina field. The unit was formed in Sept., 1959 for the purpose of pressure maintenance by fluid injection using large injection patterns for miscible flooding as well as for water flooding. The present design of pressure maintenance would not have been possible without unitization. There are 21 participants in the unit and participation is calculated based on 85 per cent pore volume and 15 per cent acreage. The unit is completely developed with 569 wells drilled on 80-acre spacing. Socony Mobil Oil of Canada, Ltd. is the operator of this large unit. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the basic reservoir data for the unit, and to present a discussion on the design and performance of pressure maintenance by water flooding and miscible flooding.
The geology of the Cardium reservoir in the Pembina field has been described in the literature.
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