A High-Pressure Dry-Gas Miscible Displacement SchemeSimulation and Economics
- Jorge Flores (Esso Production Malaysia Inc.) | J. Pawelek (Pacific Petroleums Ltd.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- February 1981
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 359 - 369
- 1981. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.4.9 Miscible Methods, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 4.1.9 Tanks and storage systems, 5.6.9 Production Forecasting, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.3.1 Flow in Porous Media, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 4.1.4 Gas Processing, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.5.8 History Matching
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To develop an enhanced recovery scheme for the Cardium E pool, the feasibility of waterflooding and gas injection was examined. A compositional model was developed to account for mass transfer and changes in composition of this undersaturated, highly volatile oil system. High-pressure dry-gas injection was desirable to achieve a high degree of miscibility.
The Caroline Cardium E pool, discovered in June 1974, is approximately 65 km (40 miles) southwest of Red Deer, Alta. (Fig. 1). The discovery well was the Hudson's Bay Oil and Gas (HBOG) 10-16-34-06W5, which was followed by the drilling of five additional wells in the Bearberry Cardium A pool (T34,R06W5).
The existence of a 23-km (14-mile) northwest extension of this Cardium trend was proved by the drilling of the Pacific et al. Ricinus 10-22-36-08W5 in Aug. 1975 and subsequently confirmed by the Pacific et al. Ricinus 11-28-35-07W5 in Jan. 1976. The areal extension involving T36,R08; T35,R07;and part of T36,RO7 will be referred in this study as the area operated by Pacific Petroleums Ltd. The oil reservoir in these wells initially was referred to as the Cardium U pool.
In Aug. 1976, an application was filed with the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB)** requesting a special 130-ha (320-acre) spacing unit comprising either the northern or southern half of the section. This request was based mainly on the marginal economics for developing this thin-pay, narrow-type reservoir. It was approved by the ERCB in an order prescribing drilling spacing units in the Caroline area that became effective Nov. 1, 1976. On this basis, the well allowable was approximately 9 m3/d (58 STB/D).
By Dec. 1976, a total of 13 wells had been drilled in the Pacific-operated area. At that time, based on pressure data and reservoir fluid analysis, Pacific pressure data and reservoir fluid analysis, Pacific filed an application requesting that the Ricinus Cardium E pool and the Bearberry Cardium A pool be coalesced into the Caroline Cardium E pool. The ERCB's approval to this matter was given in Feb. 1977.1 As of June 1979, a total of 34 wells had been drilled in the Pacific-operated area.
To develop an optimum enhanced recovery scheme for the Caroline Cardium E pool in the Pacific-operated area, the feasibility of a waterflooding and high-pressure dry-gas miscible displacement schemes have been examined in this study. A number of papers have emphasized the field application of papers have emphasized the field application of high-pressure dry-gas or vaporizing gas miscible displacement. It has been shown that a miscible displacement of oil with dry gas can be accomplished if the oil is rich enough in the intermediate components (C through C ). The reservoir fluid from the Cardium E pool, being a highly volatile oil, appears to be amenable to undergo miscible displacement under high-pressure dry-gas injection and involving multiple-contact miscibility of the gas with the reservoir oil.
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