Relationships Between the Mud Resistivity, Mud Filtrate Resistivity, and the Mud Cake Resistivity of Oil Emulsion Mud Systems
- Norman Lamont (U. of Texas)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- August 1957
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 51 - 52
- 1957. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 1.11.2 Drilling Fluid Selection and Formulation (Chemistry, Properties), 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis
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The evaluation of certain reservoir properties, such as porosity and fluid saturation, from electrical well surveys has been widely accepted in petroleum engineering. Various investigators have established relationships between these properties and certain parameters which affect the response of the electrical log. Among these are the resistivities of the mud, its filtrate, and its filter cake. In 1949, Patnode established a relationship between the resistivities of the mud and filtrate. The well logging service companies have contributed relationships for the mud-mud cake resistivities. These have been valuable since it was the practice to measure only resistivity of mud at the well site.
During the mid-1940's the industry began drilling wells with oil-emulsion drilling fluids. These were conventional aqueous muds with a dispersed oil phase. Since 1950, oil-emulsion muds have been used on an increasing number of wells each year. However, the practice of measuring only the resistivity of the mud at the well site has continued, and the mud filtrate and mud cake resistivities have been determined by the above-mentioned relationships. Service companies are now equipped to measure all three resistivities at the well site.
An investigation was conducted on the resistivities of oil-emulsion muds, mud filtrates, and mud cakes to determine if these values conformed to the relationships for aqueous muds.
Types of Muds
Fifty-one oil-emulsion mud samples were prepared in the laboratory following a standard manual published by a leading mud company. The diesel oil in the samples varied from 5 to 50 per cent, the majority of the samples being in the 10 per cent region. The basic aqueous mud types which were converted to oil-emulsion muds were commercial clay and bentonite muds, low pH and high pH, caustic-quebracho treated muds, and lime treated muds. The emulsions were stabilized by dispersed solids, lignins, lignosulfonates, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, or sulfonated petrolatum. It is worthy of note that after a quiescent period of two weeks at room temperature all samples, regardless of emulsifying agent, remained stable.
The make-up water for the muds was from the laboratory tap. Resistivities were varied by the addition of table salt to the water. A range of mud resistivities from 0.44 to 3.9 ohm-m was obtained in this way.
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