Experimental Study of Crater Formation in Limestone at Elevated Pressures
- Norman E. Garner (U. Of Texas) | Augusto Podio (U. Of Texas) | Carl Gatlin (U. Of Texas)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- December 1963
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,356 - 1,364
- 1963. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 1.6 Drilling Operations, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.7.5 Well Control, 1.12.6 Drilling Data Management and Standards
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Experimental data from single chisel blows on Leuders limestone are presented. A pressure chamber, similar in design to well known microbit drilling chambers, was utilized to impose various stress states on the sample. Confining pressure of zero to 10,000 psi and borehole pressures from zero to 5,000 psi have been used in the studies. Pore pressure was zero and the rock samples dry in all instances. Force-displacement records and visual examination of the craters indicate that the mode of failure depends on both confining and borehole pressure in certain ranges, ranging from brittle, through a transition, to near plastic. The mode of failure is reflected in the observed blow force and energy data, as well as the shape of force-penetration curves.
A previous paper presented initial data from the project on which this paper is the second report. While the first paper dealt with impact studies on synthetic rocks, the literature cited there is also pertinent to this paper, but will not be listed again in order to avoid needless repetition. This paper presents experimental data from single chisel impacts on limestone at certain simulated wellbore stress states. Specific variables investigated were combinations of borehole and confining pressure, crater geometry, a narrow range of impact velocity and the forces required to drive the chisel into the specimens under the varying conditions.
The same basic apparatus described in our earlier paper, except for the pressure vessel, was used in this study. Fig. 1 shows the complete experimental system. Fig. 2 shows details of the pressure cell, which is quite similar to the well known microbit drilling chamber. The confining (overburden) pressure system provides independent pressure control over the sample except for two, 2/4 in. diameter areas located on the sample ends. These two areas provide a pore pressure entrance on the bottom and a striking surface on the top where borehole pressure can be controlled. The ends are isolated from the confining pressure by O-ring seals. The borehole and pore pressures are related through the striking surface; they will be the same unless a seal is deposited on the borehole surface, either a mud cake or some other impermeable membrane. In these studies pore pressure control was not used, as the rocks were dry and unsaturated in all cases. Rock samples were prepared from 4-in. cubes as illustrated by Fig. 3. The circular disks of adhesive vinyl plastic protected the impact surface from the resin coating (Scotchcast No. 2) and were removed just prior to each test. This procedure insured a fresh uncontaminated surface for the impact. Fig. 4 shows the dimensions and loading of the sample, including the concentrations around the "borehole" periphery (O-ring seal). The rock used in this study was Leuders limestone, of Permian age (Leonard), quarried near Leuders, Tex. Geologically, Leuders limestone is a light gray, fossiliferous limestone (oolitic foraminiferal biosporite). Its fossil content is 80 to 90 per cent and consists primarily of calcitornellid, ostracods, pelecypods and oolites with the remaining part intraclasts. There are hematite or limonite rims on some of the intraclasts. The porosity is approximately 20 per cent, but the permeability is less than 1 md. There is no apparent orientation in the structure. Triaxial tests have been conducted to determine the variation of the physical properties of Leuders limestone in three orthogonal directions, and it is known to be unusually isotropic and uniform. Physical parameters for this rock are: uniaxial compressive strength = 9,700 psi; phi = 32 degrees and C = 2,700 psi; where phi and C are Coulomb equation values (T = C + sigma tan phi). Impact tests were run under the combinations of confining and borehole pressures shown in Table 1. Samples were dry with atmospheric pore pressure in all cases. Tests, in which elevated borehole pressures were applied, used a single layer of household Saran-Wrap to prevent borehole fluid invasion into the sample. This proved to be simple and reliable. The blunt wedge used in all the tests was 0.75 in. long and had an included angle of 60 degrees with a 0.05-in. flat. In addition, a sharp 60 degree wedge was used for all confining pressures at zero borehole pressure.
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