Laminar Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids in Concentric Annuli
- Robert D. Vaughn (Purdue U.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal
- Publication Date
- December 1963
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 274 - 276
- 1963. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.11 Fundamental Research in Reservoir Description and Dynamics
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- 442 since 2007
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The limiting cases of non-Newtonian fluids flowing inside a concentric annular duct are developed without using a model of the fluid behavior. The solutions provide limits with which to test the various models of fluid behavior such as the power law and Bingham plastic models. The results of previous theoretical work are discussed in terms of limiting cases. This limiting case study also shows that experimental work on flow of non-Newtonian fluids in annular ducts should be confined to ducts for which the ratio of the radius of the inner wall to that of the outer wall is less than 0.3 and preferably less than 0.2.
During the last 10 years the problem of laminar flow of non-Newtonian fluids in concentric annuli has received much attention largely because of its application to the hydrodynamics of the wellbore. Recently solutions utilizing the power law and Bingham plastic models have been published. In this paper the method of limiting cases, which has been successfully applied to laminar-flow heat transfer will be applied to the problem of flow of non-time dependent, non-Newtonian fluids through annuli. This method permits solutions for the limiting cases to be made without using a model of unknown validity. The solutions, therefore, provide limits with which to test the various models which have been or will be proposed. A pertinent conclusion concerning the region of experimental work is also provided.
DEVELOPMENT OF LIMITING CASES
The limiting cases for the axial flow of fluids in concentric annuli may be defined with reference to Fig. L It is possible to define two limiting cases which pertain to the physical dimensions of the annulus. First, the annulus must degenerate to a circular pipe as the radius of the inner wall decreases or, as K = (KR/R) - 0. Second, the annulus must approach the limit of parallel plates of infinite extent as the spacing between the inner and outer tubes becomes small in comparison with the radius R of the annulus, or as K - 1. It is also possible to ascertain three limbing cases which pertain to fluid behavior. With reference to Fig. 2, as a fluid becomes progressively more pseudoplastic, the shear stress- shear rate relationship progressively approaches the indicated horizontal line more closely. At this limit the shear stress becomes independent of the shear rate. At the other extreme of increasingly dilatant behavior, the vertical asymptote is approached. Intermediate between these two limiting cases lies the case of the Newtonian fluid. Fluids which exhibit a yield shear stress also approach the limbing case of "infinite" pseudoplastic behavior.
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