Water Content of Sour Hydrocarbon Systems
- J. Lukacs (U. Of Alberta) | D.B. Robinson (U. Of Alberta)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal
- Publication Date
- December 1963
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 293 - 297
- 1963. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.6 Natural Gas
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A knowledge of the equilibrium water content of hydrocarbon systems under pressure is important to the national gas industry. The information available on the solubility of water in hydrocarbon, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide systems is reviewed in this paper and the influence of the more important variables such as temperature, pressure and molecular structure on solubility in liquids and gases is discussed.
A suitable chromatographic technique bas been developed for determining low concentrations of water. Tailing of the water peaks bas been eliminated by adding water to the carrier gas stream The method is applicable for both gas or liquid samples and is effective in the presence of hydrogen sulfide.
The experimental study of water solubility in methane-hydrogen sulfide systems at a temperature of 16F has shown that the presence o/ hydrogen sulfide causes only a modest increase in water content at pressures up to 1,400 psia. Theoretical considerations and data on pure hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide suggest that the effect of both these compounds will be greater at higher pressures and in the liquid phase.
Before transporting or processing natural gases and gas condensates, it is usually necessary to dry them using suitable dehydration equipment. The design and operation of this equipment requires a knowledge of the amount of water present in the fluid at the reservoir and operating conditions. This is influenced by temperature, pressure and composition, particularly when certain nonhydrocarbon components are present. Field experience indicates that hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, for example, alter the usual water solubility relationships appreciably. However, an extensive search of the literature does not reveal any quantitative data on such systems.
For sweet natural gases, generalized empirical correlations such as the one proposed by Katz, et al, can be used to predict water solubility with confidence at most temperatures and pressures of interest. However, existing theoretical relationships do not permit a calculation of the deviation from these curves when polar substances like hydrogen sulfide are present in the system. Thus one must resort to an experimental approach to obtain the necessary information. The fact that laboratory experimental methods frequently involve the use of mercury which reacts with hydrogen sulfide in the presence of water, and that hydrogen sulfide interferes with many chemical reactions specific for water has contributed to the difficulty of studying water solubility in systems containing hydrogen sulfide. In this investigation the water content of a limited member of methane-hydrogen sulfide mixtures was determined using a special technique with gas chromatography.
REVIEW OF PUBLISHED DATA
Experimentally determined water solubility data have been reported for methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, 1-butene, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. These studies report the effect of pressure, temperature and molecular structure on water solubility in single component gases and liquids.
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