The Vertical Multiphase Flow of Oil and Gas At High Rates
- R.E. Cornish (Abu Dhabi Petroleum Co., Ltd.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- July 1976
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 825 - 831
- 1976. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 4.1.9 Tanks and storage systems, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 3.1.6 Gas Lift, 2.2.2 Perforating
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A method is presented for calculating the pressure drop in a vertical well flowing oil and gas. It is designed primarily for flow rates in excess of 5,000 BID in large-diameter tubing, casing, or casing annuli, and relies heavily on the use of PVT data.
While many investigators have attempted to develop methods for predicting the pressure loss that occurs in a vertical wellbore in which oil and gas are flowing simultaneously, few have specifically considered casing annulus flow, and then only at relatively low rates. Most Middle East oil companies have studied the problem, but little has been published. High-rate wells, problem, but little has been published. High-rate wells, although few in number when compared with the total number of producing wells worldwide, account for a considerable proportion of the world's production; yet none of the presently published articles predicts the two-phase pressure drop with any precision. Sanchez has calculated the bottom-hole flowing pressure for many wells using the methods of Hagedorn and Brown, Duns and Ros, Orkiszewski, and Baxendell and Thomas. Included in Sanchez data are the first 10 wells listed in Table 1. Table 2 compares his results for these 10 wells with those found below.
The objective of this paper is to describe a more accurate means for calculating the two-phase pressure drop in a vertical wellbore for flow rates in excess of about 5,000 B/D, with large-diameter tubing, casing, or casing annulus "oil strings." The limitations to the range of application are discussed.
Pressure Traverse Equation Pressure Traverse Equation The pressure traverse equation, as used in this paper, is of the form (1)
This equation is similar in many ways to that of Poettmann and Carpenter and Hagedorn and Brown Poettmann and Carpenter and Hagedorn and Brown and can be derived from the general energy equation. The fundamental difference between this paper and the work of those previously mentioned is that no general correlations are made from masses of field or experimental data. The pressure traverse is evaluated using PVT data for the crude oil being considered, friction PVT data for the crude oil being considered, friction factors obtained from a standard Moody diagram or the Colebrook equation, and implicitly assumes no slippage between phases. The individual parameters and their treatment are discussed in the following sections.
The fluid density is derived from PVT data for the flowing crude oil. These data are usually obtained from laboratory measurements made on a bottom-hole sample collected from the well and pressure sealed during transportation from the field.
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