Applications of Numerical Methods to Some Structural Problems in Offshore Operations
- Hudson Matlock (U. Of Texas)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- September 1963
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,040 - 1,046
- 1963. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 1.6 Drilling Operations
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 240 since 2007
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Beam-columns with continuous or discontinuous transverse and angular loads and elastic restraints are represented mathematically in a manner corresponding to finite-element mechanical models. solutions for linearly elastic cases are accomplished by direct recursion-equation elimination of unknowns, and for cases involving nonlinear loads and supports, by repeated trial-and-adjustment of complete elastic-type solutions. Five practical applications are presented by which various capabilities of the general method are illustrated. The examples include simulation of a pipeline launching and the bending and collapse of a conductor pipe in deep-water drilling operations.
The diversified and complex operations being conducted in support of the production of offshore oil have produced a wide variety of new problems in structural mechanics. Many of these problems cannot be solved by conventional analytical or experimental approaches and have therefore stimulated inquiry into new methods of solution. It is the purpose of this paper to give a brief description of an analytical method for solving nonlinear beam-column problems and to illustrate the generality of the method by applying it to several problems related to offshore operations. Although the data for all of the examples are artificial, the cases discussed will be recognized as being based on actual situations.
DESCRIPTION OF METHOD
The analytical approach which is to be described stems from research on offshore foundations, in particular, the study of lateral-load behavior of foundation piles. The method represents a generalization of a technique which was suggested by Gleser and extended by Focht and McClelland and Reese and Matlock. To maintain generality and therefore versatility in the method, a considerable variety of input data is considered. Fig. 1 illustrates the various types of loads and restraints which might be applied to a short segment of a beam. Each of the terms illustrated in the figure is shown acting in a positive sense. Capital letters are used to designate concentrated quantities whereas the corresponding lower-case symbols indicate effects which are distributed in some way along the length of the beam. The transverse loads and the elastic restraints may be divided into two classes: (1) loads Q and q and springs S and s, which act normal to the axis of the beam, and (2) couples T and t and rotational springs R and r, which act in an angular sense. In addition, there is an axial force P which may be constant or may vary along the length of the beam. The bending stiffness of the beam (the product EI of the modulus of elasticity and the moment of inertia) is designated by the symbol F. The assumptions of conventional elementary beam theory provide the basis for the present method. Among these are the neglect of shearing and axial deformations and the limiting of consideration to straight beams of symmetrical cross-section. Lateral deflections are considered to be small compared to original dimensions. A deformed element of such a beam is shown in Fig. 2a. The curvature of the beam is approximated by the second derivative of the deflection y with respect to distance x along the beam. It is assumed that the material of the beam is linearly elastic and therefore the relation of Eq. 1 between curvature and bending moment M is the ordinary expression from elementary beam theory. A generalized beam element is shown in Fig. 2b. The element has been deflected in a positive direction by an amount y and tilted through a small positive angle dy/dx. The various loads and elastic restraint reactions are detailed in the figure. Temporarily, only distributed effects are considered; provision for concentrated loads and restraints will be made subsequently.
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