A Variable-Rate Procedure for Appraising Wellbore Damage in Waterflood Input Wells
- C.R. Johnson (Jersey Production Research Co.) | R.A. Greenkorn (Jersey Production Research Co.) | G.W. Widner (Jersey Production Research Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- January 1963
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 85 - 89
- 1963. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.5.2 Core Analysis
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This paper describes a short, simple well-testing procedure evolved from unsteady-state concepts to appraise wellbore damage in water-input wells. Input rates are changed at specific intervals over a 30-minute period and the wellhead pressure recorded at the end of each interval. From these data, the pressure drop due to the "skin" can he computed. This pressure drop in terms of psi/B/D of input rate is referred to as the "skin factor". Two of these variable-rate tests are required to determine change of wellbore damage and to evaluate well-treatment techniques. There are several advantages to the variable-rate procedure. The necessary data can be obtained with wellhead gauges and meters. There is little interference with normal operations. The short testing period eliminates many interpretative difficulties that come from interference from adjacent wells. The shut-in period required for standard tests before the plot of pressure vs log of time attains a straight line is often 12 hours or more. Such a time period is inconvenient, especially when a well must be tested repeatedly to evaluate change in wellbore characteristics. This variable-rate procedure has been successfully applied to water-input wells in three fields. For some of the wells, skin factors were calculated from both the standard and the variable-rate tests. These results show good agreement.
THEORY OF THE VARIABLE-RATE PROCEDURE
In many waterflood input wells, the pressure in the wellbore differs from the pressure in the reservoir immediately adjacent to the well because of the restriction of flow through the skin of the well. If the true pressure of the reservoir at the well, pt, is that pressure which would exist in the well if no skin were present, and pt' is the actual pressure as measured in the well, this difference, pt'-pt, is the skin effect. Fig. 1 shows the change in skin effect with change in flow rate. As the flow is reduced, the skin effect pt'-pt is reduced by an amount equal to the change in wellbore pressure minus the change in reservoir pressure. The equation of pressure change without skin using the point-source solution of the diffusivity equation is (after van Everdingen)
where q = flow rate, B/D, k = permeability, md, h = thickness, ft, = porosity, psi, = viscosity, cp, c = compressibility, vol/vol/psi, rw = well radius, ft, and t = time, minutes.
With skin factor S, it may be written
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