Well-Test Analysis for Wells Producing From Two Commingled Zones of Unequal Thickness
- R. Raghavan (Amoco Production Co.) | H.N. Topaloglu (Turkish Petroleum Corp.) | W.M. Cobb (Mississippi State U.) | H.J. Ramey Jr. (Stanford U.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- September 1974
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,035 - 1,043
- 1974. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing
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- 323 since 2007
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Established methods of analyzing pressure buildup for two-layer no-crossflow systems are extended here to include the effect of the thickness of each zone for a wide range of permeability ratios. In addition, methods are presented for estimating the permeability of the individual layers.
In 1961, Lefkovitz et al. presented solutions describing the pressure behavior of a well producing at a constant rate from a bounded, producing at a constant rate from a bounded, noncommunicating multilayer reservoir. Their study provided a basis for pressure test analysis of wells producing from commingled zones. They recommended a Homer graph for determining average formation flow capacity but found it unsatisfactory for the evaluation of mean or average reservoir pressure. As a result, they suggested that the pressure. As a result, they suggested that the Muskat graph be used to calculate the static reservoir pressure. More recently Cobb et al., using the results of Lefkovitz et al., examined the pressure behavior of a two-layer reservoir for a wide range of producing and shut-in conditions. They assumed that each zone was of equal thickness and they presented results along lines suggested by the general pressure buildup theory for a wide range of permeability ratios. An important conclusion of Ref. 4 was that the permeability and thickness of each individual layer permeability and thickness of each individual layer cannot be evaluated by the conventional semilog techniques. Accordingly, they recommended that an independent effort be made to determine the individual layer characteristics. The primary objective of this paper is to extend the pressure buildup analysis of wells producing from two commingled zones by including the effect of the thickness of each zone for a wide range of permeability ratios. The results presented in this paper correspond to thickness ratios of 2 and 5. It will be shown that the results may also be used to analyze reservoirs with thickness ratios of 1/2 and 1/5, provided the permeability ratio is less than or equal to 10. The permeability ratio is less than or equal to 10. The second objective of this paper is to present methods for estimating the permeability of the individual layers. These methods may also be applied to earlier work related to two-layer commingled fluid production. We consider here a two-layer reservoir that is horizontal and cylindrical; it is enclosed at the top, bottom, and at the external drainage radius by an impermeable boundary. Each layer is homogeneous and is filled with a fluid of small and constant compressibility. The pressure gradients are small, and gravity effects are negligible in the reservoir. The porosity of the layers is assumed to be equal; the porosity of the layers is assumed to be equal; the permeability and thickness of the two zones are the permeability and thickness of the two zones are the parameters under investigation. The initial reservoir parameters under investigation. The initial reservoir pressure is the same in both layers and the surface pressure is the same in both layers and the surface production rate is constant. Finally, it is also assumed production rate is constant. Finally, it is also assumed that the instantaneous sand-face pressure is identical in both layers.
Analysis of Dimensionless Pressure And Time Data
For convenience of discussion we shall use the dimensionless variables listed below, defined in English engineering units.
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