Cement Bond Log-A Study of Cement and Casing Variables
- G.H. Pardue (Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp.) | R.L. Morris (Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- May 1963
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 545 - 555
- 1963. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 3 Production and Well Operations, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 1.14.3 Cement Formulation (Chemistry, Properties), 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 2.2.2 Perforating, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.8.5 Oil Sand, Oil Shale, Bitumen
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Experimental and theoretical studies of casing-borne signals have provided data on the attenuation effect, compressive strength and shear modulus for different types of cement. These data resulted in the establishment of a definite relationship between the cement compressive strength and the Cement Bond log reading. The relationship is influenced by the casing dimensions, but is independent of the type of cement and the curing conditions. The theoretical analysis provides a mathematical statement of the phenomenon and shows that the attenuation rate is basically a function of the shear modulus of the cement and the thickness of the casing. The lab tests provided a connection between the shear modulus and the compressive strength, and permitted a comparison of the experimental and theoretical work. The results of the experimental and theoretical study have provided means of quantitative interpretation of the Cement Bond log. This interpretation is made more convenient with the use of a nomograph.
Past interpretation of Cement Bond logs has been essentially based upon a qualitative comparison between the log response in the zone of interest and the responses in the "fully cemented" and the "uncemented" intervals. Most of the variables influencing the magnitude of the signals were recognized in an earlier paper; however, insufficient laboratory data were available at that time for quantitative evaluation of these variables. Early attempts to use the numerical amplitudes of the signals without full knowledge of their significance resulted in erroneous comparisons between various types of cement. An extensive program was undertaken to evaluate, both experimentally and theoretically, the attenuation phenomenon and to study the effects of the more common variables. A major objective of the experimental program was to obtain data on the relationship between cement-bond-tool response and physical property standards used by the industry so that practical interpretation methods could be devised. The studies included a comparison of attenuation rate with these properties as a function of time, temperature and pressure, using common sizes of casing. The main result was that a definite relationship was established between the compressive strength of the cement in intimate contact with the casing and the response of the cement bond tool. For a given casing thickness, regardless of the type of cement or the curing conditions used, the attenuation rate is a function of the compressive strength. A theoretical analysis showed that the attenuation rate for casing-borne signals should be a function of (among other things) the shear modulus of the cement and the thickness of the casing. The relationship between the compressive strength and shear modulus for curing times similar to those encountered in the field was determined from laboratory tests. Using this relationship, the computed attenuation rates showed reasonable agreement with the measured attenuation rates. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of the experimental and theoretical investigations and to present the first practical method for a quantitative interpretation of Cement Bond logs based on known variables. This method is applicable where the casing-borne signal is not affected by high-velocity formation arrivals.
DESCRIPTION OF LOGGING TOOL
The Cement Bond logging tool shown schematically in Fig. 1 has been described previously. The tool consists of two sections: acoustic and electronic. The acoustic section contains a transmitter and a receiver, usually spaced 3-ft apart. Sonic energy emitted by the transmitter travels through the casing and is detected at the receiver.
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