The Dye-Photo Tool: Its Operation and Applications
- C.M. Bryant (Dowell Inc.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- October 1954
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 13 - 16
- 1954. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 3 Production and Well Operations, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 5.4.1 Waterflooding
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Description of Tool
The need for an economical, practical method for accurately locating zones of water entry in a wellbore has long been recognized by production men. The development of waterflooding made necessary a means of determining which horizons were being flooded, and the rate of flooding of each zone during actual operations. Research resulted in the Dye-Photo tool shown in Fig. 1.
The tool is designed to measure the translucency of any liquid in which it may be suspended. As fluid passes between a light source and a photo-electric cell. its light transmissive properties are measured. This data is transmitted to the surface where it is recorded (Fig. 2). By conditioning the fluid in the wellbore with an opaque dye, any fluid migration or dilution can be detected readily.
The Dye-Photo tool has three major components:
(1) a bailer for containing and releasing the dye, (2) a photo-electric cell which accurately measures any change in light intensity in the conditioned section, and (3) a sonic collar locator for coordinating depth measurements. The tool is operated by electrical impulses transmitted from the surface through the standard 5/16-in. diameter single-conductor electrical armored cable.
The consolidation of these three components into single tool has greatly reduced the time, and resulting expense, required for conducting a survey. Simplicity of operations and easily interpreted results are characteristics of surveying with the Dye-Photo tool. Accuracy of results has been attested by the success of subsequent remedial operations.
Preparing for Survey
Certain fundamental preparations should be made for conducting a water location survey using the Dye-Photo tool:
1. Water must be standing in the wellbore, at lease throughout the section to be surveyed.
2. If water has been injected into the formation recently, the well should be produced in sufficient quantity to eliminate the possibility of injected water being produced during the survey from a normally non-producing zone.
3. The well should be cleaned out to total depth. All cavings should be bailed or sand-pumped.
4. For a pumping well with tubing and rods pulled, some method of producing the well (usually either a bailer or swab) must be available.
5. If the well is to be surveyed down the annulus, a special wellhead should be installed to minimize the hazards of running a line down the annulus. The clearance between tubing couplings and casing must be sufficient to allow the free passage of the tool.
6. Flowing wells should be equipped with open-ended tubing, suspended above the zone to be surveyed. (The Dye-Photo tool will pass through a standard 1-25/32-in. seating nipple).
7. If a well containing a packer is to be surveyed down tubing, the opening through the packer must be sufficiently large to allow passage of the tool.
8. A mast of some description must be available to handle the "derrick" sheave.
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