Friction and Bearing Loads on Buried Pipes
- Alexander Blake (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory) | Maurice Zaslawsky (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal
- Publication Date
- June 1973
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 163 - 174
- 1973. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.3.4 Integration of geomechanics in models, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 4.3.4 Scale
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Presented here are results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the behavior of downhole pipe, surrounded by Overton sand or gravel, when subjected to shock from nuclear explosion. The principal effects investigated are (1) longitudinal friction between the pipe and the stemming material and (2) resistance offered by the stemming material to transverse motion of the pipe.
Stemming materials such as Overton sand and pea gravel are widely used in underground nuclear pea gravel are widely used in underground nuclear testing to ensure containment of the explosion. Present-day theories of mechanics suitable for predicting stresses and displacements within an predicting stresses and displacements within an array of particles of such materials are rather limited because of the stress-strain-time behavior and complicated boundary conditions involved. Thus, measurements representing gross effects only and linearized models of analysis must be relied upon in making the majority of engineering decisions where soil-structure interactions are encountered. Furthermore, because of the number of variables and hardware constraints present in designing deep-hole emplacement systems, the emphasis should be on obtaining experimental data on fullscale or nearly full-scale structural components in association with stemming materials of actual field quality. The experiment discussed in this paper was directed toward the development of basic mechanical properties such as modulus of elasticity, friction characteristics during axial (longitudinal) pipe motion through stemming materials, resistance pipe motion through stemming materials, resistance of stemming materials to transverse pipe displacement, and related physical phenomena that may have further bearing on the usual mechanical properties employed in various design analyses. properties employed in various design analyses. During evaluation of the basic mechanical properties, an attempt was made to develop a properties, an attempt was made to develop a Poisson's ratio type of data for the stemming Poisson's ratio type of data for the stemming materials at hand by using both specialized equipment and standard test equipment normally employed in soil mechanics. The results of the study, however, should be interpreted with due regard to the particulate nature of stemming materials, which do not represent a continuum with well defined stress-strain relationships. To obtain meaningful data on friction and transverse resistance characteristics, a special test rig was designed with particular emphasis on minimizing the scale effects and experimental errors usually encountered.
In mechanics the term "friction" is the resistance to motion of two moving objects or surfaces that touch. In this paper we speak of several different types of micron, and therefore some clarification is needed. The friction between sand or gravel and the down-hole pipe as we attempt to move the pipe is one type of friction. A similar type is the friction developed between sand or gravel and the steel block it rubs against in the direct shear test apparatus. Those two examples of friction are rather straightforward, however, the following two present some confusion because they are both referred to as internal friction: 1. Internal friction as used by engineering scientists, physicists, and metallurgists may be defined as the conversion of the mechanical energy of a vibrating solid into heat. This is also referred to as the damping capacity and corresponds to a phase difference between the applied stress and phase difference between the applied stress and its resultant strain. 2. b soil mechanics the concept of internal friction corresponds to friction between the surfaces of individual grains of sand or gravel. In granular materials, both kinds of internal friction occur. In this paper the term "internal friction" is referred to extensively and is used exclusively in the sense of friction between particles. particles. FUNDAMENTALS OF SOIL MECHANICS
The mechanical behavior of earth materials such as sand or gravel can be described by suitable physical constants reflecting certain physical constants reflecting certain stress-deformation relations that may then be applied in customary engineering predictions. In dealing with the rigidity of rocks, Young's modulus, E, and Poisson's ratio, , are commonly used, and soil Poisson's ratio, , are commonly used, and soil mechanics utilizes basic concepts of the theory of elasticity. By analogy to this well established practice, related concepts utilizing elastic practice, related concepts utilizing elastic constants in loading and unloading can be made applicable to stemming materials.
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