Permanent Gauge Pressure and Rate Measurements for Reservoir Description and Well Monitoring: Field Cases
- Trond Unneland (Statoil) | Yves Manin (Schlumberger-Riboud Product Center) | Fikri Kuchuk (Schlumberger Technical Services)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- June 1998
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 224 - 230
- 1998. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 5.6.8 Well Performance Monitoring, Inflow Performance, 5.6.11 Reservoir monitoring with permanent sensors, 5.7 Reserves Evaluation, 4.6 Natural Gas, 2.2.2 Perforating, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 5.6.9 Production Forecasting, 2 Well Completion, 5.5.8 History Matching, 2.3.4 Real-time Optimization, 1.3.1 Surface Wellheads, 3.3.1 Production Logging, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 1.8 Formation Damage, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
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This paper presents a procedure for interpreting data acquired with permanent downhole pressure sensors in association with surface or downhole rate measurements. The usefulness of this data source in reservoir description and well performance monitoring is illustrated.
Unlike previously published examples, the interpretation is based on the analysis on a stream of data acquired over large periods of time, thus utilizing the continuous nature of the measurements. Three field cases are presented using the pressure and rate data in decline-curve analysis for wells with a variable downhole flowing pressure, and through more sophisticated models that are similar to the ones used in well test analysis.
Because such interpretation is conducted while continuing production, it is particularly well suited for a well or group of wells under extended testing, which are equipped with downhole gauges and are flowing through surface separation and metering systems. Wells completed with both permanent downhole rate and pressure measurements are also ideal candidates for this type of analysis.
Finally, the influence of the pressure sensor long term drift and the rate measurement error on the interpretation results and future forecasts are investigated.
Since the first permanent downhole gauge installations in the early 1960's on land wells, the new technology in cable manufacturing, gauge sensor and electronics has permitted reliable installations also in hot, deep wells and subsea completions. These systems have gained acceptance among operators, and currently several hundred downhole gauges are installed every year.
The traditional applications associated with permanent downhole systems can be characterized by four distinctions: (1) single well optimization, (2) reservoir description, (3) safety improvement, and (4) operating cost reduction. Combining the recent technology development and these applications, the downhole gauge installations can be safe and reliable, as well as good investments.
Most of the previous papers on the subject have focused on the hardware involved in permanent downhole pressure gauge installations. Regarding reservoir description, a few examples have been published where data recorded by the permanent downhole gauges have been used in well test transient analysis and multiwell interference tests. However, little has been published on the use of continuous downhole measurement in order to enhance reservoir description when associated with rate data during the pseudosteady state or depletion period of a field or a separate block.
Decline curve analysis is one of the most widely used and documented methods for reserve estimation and production forecasting for a field under depletion. Solutions have been published for the case of a well producing at constant downhole flowing pressure. In reality, due to production constraints or change in operating procedures, the downhole flowing pressure seldom remains at a constant level over long periods of time. In the decline curve analysis literature, various methods have been proposed to account for these pressure variations; these include normalization and various types of superposition based on the pressure change observed at the wellhead.
|File Size||354 KB||Number of Pages||7|