Improved Bentonite Cements Through Partial Acceleration
- H.J. Beach (Gulf Oil Corp.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- September 1961
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 923 - 926
- 1961. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 1.14.3 Cement Formulation (Chemistry, Properties), 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2 Well Completion, 2.2.2 Perforating, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.3.1 Hydrates
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This paper describes the properties and uses of cementitious mixtures containing 10 to 20 per cent bentonite and 2 per cent or more sodium chloride. Salt additions improve bentonite cement by increasing early strength and stabilizing viscosity without changing thickening time. The volume yield of cement is increased 20 per cent or more without lowered early strength. The unique properties of salt in this type of system make savings of more than 10 per cent possible where light-weight, low-strength cementitious material is adequate to fill behind pipe. The density range of these mixtures is 12 to 13 lb/gal and the filtration rates are medium-low, aiding the placement of long columns in primary cementing. Where available, sea water is an ideal salt source in preparing these slurries.
Accelerators increase the rate of cement hydration. In speeding reaction with water, they can affect cement performance by reducing thickening time and increasing early strength after set. Accelerators that cause both effects can be considered "total", and those which produce only one effect can be called "partial". Materials that act conversely to accelerators are retarders, and they also can be total or partial. Partial retarders make high-temperature cementing possible by prolonging thickening time while impairing early strength only slightly. Most known accelerators are total. A useful partial accelerator would increase strength without altering thickening time. This report concerns material combinations in which a normally total accelerator exerts unique partial properties. Utilizing these limited effects improves bentonite cement.
SEPARATE EFFECTS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE AND BENTONITE ON CEMENT
Sodium chloride and calcium chloride are commonly used in cement, and at low concentrations their effects are similar. Ludwig studied sodium chloride in API Class A and Class E cements. Figs. 1 and 2 summarize his data taken at 140F on slurry pumpability and early strength. Normal water-to-cement ratios are 0.46 and 0.40, respectively, for Class A and Class E cements. At saturation the salt content is 12 to 14 per cent of the weight of cement solids. The illustrations, therefore, cover the range of salt solubility in the mixing water. The data show that sodium chloride is a total accelerator of the Class E cement studied over the range of solubility. It is total in Class A cement to 6 per cent. Above this concentration salt becomes a retarderpartial from 6 to 10 per cent and total above. These results a re general for different brands of Class A cement, although the shift from acceleration to retardation may occur at different salt concentrations for different temperatures. The results are specific for the Class E brand studied. In discussing his data, the investigator emphasized that different Class E cements might respond erratically to salt, depending on the brand chosen. Morgan and Dumbauld describe the properties of bentonite cement in a paper that is a standard reference in using these systems. Bentonite functions in cement as an enabling agent; each bentonite addition equal to 1 per cent of the weight of dry cement makes possible the further addition of 4.5 per cent water. Thus, 10 per cent bentonite in Class A cement, normally slurried neat with 46 per cent water, enables the slurry to contain another 45 per cent before settling. Water is one of the lightest and cheapest cement extenders; it reduces density and cost. Bentonite cements produce uniform slurries having low susceptibility to solids separation. After set, they offer low resistance to perforation.
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