Retrograde Condensation in Porous Media
- P.M. Sigmund (Petroleum Recovery Research Institute) | P.M. Dranchuk (U. of Alberta) | N.R. Morrow (Petroleum Recovery Research Institute) | R.A. Purvis (Energy Resources Conservation Board)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal
- Publication Date
- April 1973
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 93 - 104
- 1973. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 4.6 Natural Gas, 6.5.3 Waste Management, 5.8.8 Gas-condensate reservoirs
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SIGMUND, P.M., PETROLEUM RECOVERY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, CALGARY, ALTA., CANADA PETROLEUM RECOVERY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, CALGARY, ALTA., CANADA DRANCHUK, P.M., MEMBER SPE-AIME, U. OF ALBERTA EDMONTON, ALTA., CANADA MORROW, N.R., MEMBER SPE-AIME, PETROLEUM RECOVERY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, CALGARY, ALTA., CANADA PETROLEUM RECOVERY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, CALGARY, ALTA., CANADA PURVIS, R.A., MEMBERS SPE-AIME, PURVIS, R.A., MEMBERS SPE-AIME, ENERGY RESOURCES CONSERVATION BOARD, CALGARY, ALTA., CANADA
The effect of porous media on the phase behavior of hydrocarbon binaries was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. When liquid and vapor coexist in a porous medium, the interlace between them will be curved. Calculations of the effect of curvature on phase behavior show that equilibrium composition and Pressures would not be disturbed significantly except at very high surface curvatures. Such curvatures are unlikely in hydrocarbon reservoirs even where clay-size particles are present because the finest pores will particles are present because the finest pores will be occupied by connate water. Measured dewpoint or bubblepoint pressures were found to be independent of the presence of porous media.
Liquid saturations calculated from previous conventional phase behavior studies were compared with saturations calculated from the dimensions of a limited number of capillary structures which could be observed through the sight glass of a Jerguson cell. Saturations calculated from conventional phase-equilibrium data fell between saturations phase-equilibrium data fell between saturations calculated with The assumption that all capillary structures had equal curvature and those calculated with the assumption that they bad equal volumes.
Reservoir engineering frequently involves the use of pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) relationships for hydrocarbon mixtures. Examples arise in reservoirs, and gas-drive miscible displacements, condensation and revaporization in gas condensate reservoirs, and gas-drive miscible displacements. The PVT relationships used in such engineering calculations are usually based on measurements on equilibrium behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures contained in PVT cells. For some time there has been question as to whether phase - behavior calculations made on data measured in such cells would correctly represent the behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures held within the interstices of porous reservoir rocks. The results of several recently reported experimental studies indicate that the presence of a porous medium has a significant influence presence of a porous medium has a significant influence on the equilibrium behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures. Trebin and Zadora contend that the initial condensation pressures (dew points) of gas condensate mixtures in pressures (dew points) of gas condensate mixtures in porous media can be 10 to 15 percent higher than those porous media can be 10 to 15 percent higher than those observed in conventional PVT cells. Tindy and Raynal reported that saturation pressures of crude oil in porous media were several percent higher than those porous media were several percent higher than those measured in conventional test cells. On the other hand, earlier results reported by Weinaug and Cordell indicated that vapor-liquid equilibrium relationships of the system methane-n-butane and methane-n-pentane were not affected by the presence of dry sand. Oxford and Huntington studied the revaporization of n-hexane by nitrogen and found that withdrawal rate and the presence of brine in the porous medium had little effect on the revaporization process. In a study of the effects of wettability change, process. In a study of the effects of wettability change, Smith and Yarborough concluded that the detailed form of the capillary structures of retrograde liquid held in a porous medium had no effect on the revaporization process. porous medium had no effect on the revaporization process. Clark studied the adsorption and desorption of light paraffinic hydrocarbons in clay and partially water-saturated paraffinic hydrocarbons in clay and partially water-saturated sand and sand-clay packs to determine their effect on equilibrium behavior. Compressibility factors for propane at 100 degrees F in the presence of dry sand-clay propane at 100 degrees F in the presence of dry sand-clay packs were lowered by 13 percent. However, in sand-clay packs were lowered by 13 percent. However, in sand-clay mixtures containing water, the compressibilities differed by less than 1 percent from those obtained in the absence of the porous media. Clark also studied effect of a dry sand-clay media on the PVT properties of mixtures of methane and propane. Only small changes were observed, and these were considered to be inconclusive - partly because the fluid was not recirculated through the porous media to ensure homogeneity. In summary, porous media to ensure homogeneity. In summary, evidence for the effect of porous media on equilibrium behavior is somewhat contradictory.
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