Full-Field Reservoir Modeling of Central Oman Gas-Condensate Fields
- L.E.C. van de Leemput (Petroleum Development Oman) | D.A. Bertram (Petroleum Development Oman) | M.R. Bentley (Petroleum Development Oman) | R. Gelling (Petroleum Development Oman)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Engineering
- Publication Date
- November 1996
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 252 - 259
- 1996. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.4 Scale, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.8.8 Gas-condensate reservoirs, 1.7.5 Well Control, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.7 Reserves Evaluation, 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc), 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 5.4.3 Gas Cycling, 4.6.2 Liquified Natural Gas (LNG), 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers
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Gas reserves sufficient for a major export scheme have been found in Central Oman. To support appraisal and development planning of the gas/condensate fields, a dedicated, multi-disciplinary study team comprising both surface and subsurface engineers was assembled. The team fostered a high level of awareness of cross-disciplinary needs and challenges, resulting in timely data acquisition and a good fit between the various work-activities. A field development plan was completed in March 1994.
The foundation of the subsurface contributions was a suite of advanced full-field reservoir models which:
-provided production and well requirement forecasts;
-quantified the impact of uncertainties on field performance and project costs;
-supported the appraisal campaign;
-optimised the field development plan;
-derived recovery factor ranges for reserves estimates.
The models were constructed early during the study, initially using general data with large uncertainty ranges, and gradually refined using new appraisal data, ultimately resulting in more than twenty full scenarios, quantifying and ranking the remaining uncertainty ranges.
Geological/petrophysical uncertainties were quantified using newly-developed, 3-D probabilistic modelling tools. An efficient computing environment allowed a large number of sensitivities to be run in a timely cost-effective manner.
The models also investigated a key concern in gas/condensate fields: well impairment due to near-well condensate precipitation. Its impact was assessed using measured, capillary number-dependent, relative permeability curves. Well performance ranges were established on the basis of Equation of State single-well simulations, and translated into the volatile oil full-field models using pseudo relative permeability curves for the wells.
The models used the sparse available data in an optimal way and, as part of the field development plan, sustained confidence in the reserves estimates and the project, which is currently in the project specification phase.
Gas in Oman In 1989 a development well in the Saih Nihayda Field was deepened to approximately 4500 m. This well discovered gas and condensate, proving a major gas exploration play in the Ghaba salt basin of Central Oman. The follow up exploration campaign has so far resulted in several further commercial discoveries, located in the Barik and Saih Rawl fields (Figure 1). All discoveries are deep (4500 to 5500 m) low permeability (1 to 10 mD) sandstone reservoirs.
With the new discoveries, Oman's gas reserves significantly exceed the foreseeable domestic requirements and this has opened up the possibility of a major gas export scheme: in mid-1992 an identification study for an LNG project started.
Appraisal and Development Team The objectives of the upstream part of the study were:
-to identify a technologically and economically feasible and optimised development concept; and
-to quantify the range of gas and condensate reserves contained in the reservoirs.
To execute the work, an appraisal and development team was set up. The team was multi-disciplinary at two levels.
At the higher level, it contained facilities, pipeline, operations and subsurface engineers.
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