Aspects of Gas Deliverability
- William Hurst (Petroleum Consultant) | William C. Goodson (Republic Natural Gas Co.) | Russell E. Leeser (The British-American Oil Producing Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- June 1963
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 668 - 676
- 1963. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 6.3.7 Safety Risk Management, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.4.3 Gas Cycling, 2.2.2 Perforating, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.8.8 Gas-condensate reservoirs
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Three aspects of gas deliverability are presented in this paper. The first treats with the gas deliverability or availability of a normal depletion-type dry gas field. Such encompasses not only the period of stabilized constant rate, but in ore so, the "tailings" when a fixed abandonment pressure is reached and the rate by necessity must decline. A comprehensive work plot is offered, developed from mathematics herein included, that removes the trial-and-error computations that attended such undertakings in the past. The second part treats with the discount factor of the open flow potential constant from what is observed initially in testing a gas well to what is evidenced when stabilization is reached. This prevails in tight formations, such as the Kansas Hugoton field which is offered as the example. The means of establishing this factor are pressure build-up curves which, as sustained by analytical deductions, reproduce this entire period of transient flow under conditions of a constant rate influx. Finally, what is offered in this paper is the deliverability performance of an exceedingly rich gas condensate field producing from a tight formation. The example shown is the Knox Bromide field in Oklahoma, producing from the Bromide formations. The results are ominous, showing early reduction in permeability to gas flow, due to the retrograde condensate forming in the pore space, with the attending early logging-up of these wells. The analytics of lowered permeability are incorporated in the gas deliverability formula along with the PVT data that gives the increased condensate liquid saturation as the gas flows to the wellbore. This paper would not be complete without a critique offered at the end. With the many gas wells now in production and those that have completed their life, there has been no factual information collected by any source as to what constitutes that permeability range where a gas well would be unimpaired in its gas deliverability by the presence of rich condensate content, and the lowered range where such would be harmful. This question confronts all producers.
Various aspects of gas deliverability are presented in this paper that includes depletion-type reservoirs, deterioration factor of the gas deliverability constant, and the performance of a rich gas condensate reservoir producing from a tight sand. With respect to the presentation of gas deliverability and its tailings for depletion-type gas reservoirs, one notes that this is essentially the information offered by every gas transmission company and producer appearing before the Federal Power Commission for Letters Of Conveyance in the dedication of reserves. In the ordinary procedure, as many engage upon this study, trial-and-error calculations are included, particularly as apply to the tailings. For many years one of the writers has employed mathematical analyses to perform this step and avoid the complexities so associated. In the preparation of this paper these analyses have been amplified to include any slope n for the open flow potential relationship for which the tailings can be determined from Fig. 1. With reference to the deterioration or discount factor of the open flow potential constant as such occurs in the gas deliverability formula, this for the most part has been an unexplored subject. Although the issue first appeared in the Kansas Hugoton field, where such was surmised but only recently resolved, this situation of a deterioration of the gas deliverability constant can occur wherever dry gas production from a tight sand is encountered. The first concerted attacks upon this problem were the presentations of Hurst and Goodson before the Kansas Corporation Commission to show that transient fluid flow and unsteady-state flow formulas prevailed. This was amplified later before the Federal Power Commission to show that this deterioration factor could be identified from pressure build-up curves. This has been reported by McMahon. Its importance to the industry merits the review of these essential features in completing the program on the aspects of gas deliverability. Finally, as illustrated here, for a low permeability formation such as the Knox Bromide field where the gas is rich, representing some 165 bbl of condensate per MMcf of effluent gas, the gas deliverability can be of limited extent in the life of the field, leaving substantial amounts of condensate and gas unrecovered. In cases such as this, gas cycling is mandatory. This is particularly revealed by the fluid mechanics introduced here, employing factual field as well as laboratory data, to show this restriction upon gas deliverability.
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