Solvent and Driving Gas Compositions for Miscible Slug Displacement
- Lyman Yarborough (Pan American Petroleum Corp.) | L.R. Smith (Pan American Petroleum Corp.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal
- Publication Date
- September 1970
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 298 - 310
- 1970. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow
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Experimental data were used for determining miscibility in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) slug flooding and enriched gas drive of crude oils. The miscibility data for LPG slug flooding includes cases where the driving gas contains large amounts of nitrogen and when low pressure miscible displacement is desired. The results of flow tests for enriched gases miscibly displacing crude oil are given. These data cover a wide range of reservoir oil properties and miscibility pressures. Methods for predicting compositional requirements for both miscible slug displacement processes are recommended and should be useful for preliminary engineering evaluation of miscible slug displacement for a reservoir.
The two most frequently applied hydrocarbon solvent processes for miscible displacement of crude oil are liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) slug flooding and enriched gas drive. A slug of the LPG or enriched gas is injected and followed by dry gas or gas-water displacement. In both cases the injected material forms a miscible slug in the reservoir. Generally, there are two fluid contact zones in which the establishment of miscibility must be considered as related to the fluid compositions and the reservoir temperature and pressure. The first zone is the solvent-reservoir oil pressure. The first zone is the solvent-reservoir oil contact zone; the second zone is where the lean scavenging gas and solvent come together. For successful miscible displacement, there must be single-hydrocarbon-phase condition throughout both contact zones. Aside from possible repressuring procedures which may be undertaken prior to solvent procedures which may be undertaken prior to solvent injection, the primary engineering control for achieving miscibility is the proper specification of the solvent and driving gas compositions. This paper discusses the compositional requirements for paper discusses the compositional requirements for miscibility to be achieved in both contact zones and considers cases where the reservoir pressure is very low or the driving gas contains a large amount of nitrogen.
LPG SLUG FLOODING FOR MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL
In LPG slug flooding there is no problem in achieving miscibility with the crude oil under conditions where the solvent remains liquid. Miscibility between the LPG slug and the driving gas may be the limiting factor. At pressures below 1,100 to 1,200 psia, miscibility often cannot be achieved between the LPG and driving gas, and even higher pressures may be required if the available driving gas contains an appreciable concentration of nitrogen. Another area of increasing interest is LPG slug flooding in reservoirs where the pressure is 1,000 psia or below. At these pressures the methane-LPG transition cannot be pressures the methane-LPG transition cannot be single phase at temperatures below 160 degrees F. The only practicable approach to achieving miscible displacement under these conditions is to inject an ethane-rich buffer slug between the LPG and the driving gas. To determine the allowable nitrogen concentration for gases driving LPG, the phase behavior of nitrogen-methane-propane mixtures was experimentally studied at 105 degrees and 120 degrees F. Similarly, equilibrium-phase behavior data were obtained for the methane-ethane-propane system at 105 degrees F. The latter results allow estimates to be made of the buffer-slug composition necessary for miscible displacement at low pressures. Also, the effects of small amounts of butane and pentane on the phase behavior of the nitrogen-methane-propane and the nitrogen-methane-ethane-propane system were studied.
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