Sequential Measurement of Compressional and Shear Velocities of Rock Samples Under Triaxial Pressure
- K.P. Desai (Atlantic Richfield Co.) | D.P. Helander (The U. of Tulsa Oil Field Drilling Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal
- Publication Date
- December 1969
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 378 - 394
- 1969. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.2.3 Rock properties
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A laboratory measuring system was designed that can precisely and sequential measure both compressional and shear velocities of rock samples under identical conditions of stress distribution and stress history. This is required if accurate and realistic dynamic elastic properties of rocks are to be determined. The hysteresis effect on velocity pressure characteristics of rock was determined to pressure characteristics of rock was determined to illustrate this point. Lead titanate zirconate transducers were used for measuring compressional wave velocity, and AC-cut quartz transducers were used for measuring shear wave velocity. The system was tested using samples of standard material such as aluminum, steel, brass and lucite. Measurements obtained were accurate within 1 percent. percent. Compressional and shear velocities were measured sequentially on 10 samples of Berea sandstone and two samples of Bartlesville sandstone. It was found that 1. Both compressional and shear velocities increased with an increase in applied external pressure. pressure. 2. Compressional velocity depends upon both external (Pe) and internal (Pi) pressure. 3. Shear velocity depends only upon the differential pressure (Pne-Pe-Pi). 4. The nature of the fluid saturant had little effect on compressional velocity. 5. Shear velocity decreased with an increase in the density of the , saturant. 6. The Berea sandstone indicated very little anisotropy. 7. The Bartlesville sandstone showed definite anisotropy.
The various properties of an acoustic wave train velocity, amplitude, frequency, etc. may be modified, sometimes quite severely by the media through which the wave has traveled. This suggests the use of wave properties to determine, at least in part, the nature of the material through which the part, the nature of the material through which the wave has passed. To accomplish this successfully requires a reliable technique to for obtaining accurate values of all acoustic wave properties. One purpose of this paper is to describe a recently developed system that can precisely and sequentially record acoustic compressional and shear energies as functions both of time and of frequency. One example of the utility of this system is the accurate measurement of compressional and shear velocities through rock samples subjected to triaxial, i.e., simultaneous but independent vertical, circumferential and pore pressure. Since acoustic velocity and elasticity are closely interrelated, such a system would help to determine realistically the elastic properties of rock samples in the laboratory.
METHODS FOR THE INDEPENDENT MEASUREMENT OF COMPRESSIONAL AND SHEAR WAVE VELOCITIES
Currently there are two suitable nondestructive laboratory techniques for measuring wave velocity through a rock sample under pressure. One is by the resonance method and the other is by the pulse technique. In the resonance method a sample, in the form of a thin wire, rod, or plate, is make to vibrate in the longitudinal, torsional or flexural mode. Resonant frequency is determined by recording the amplitude of vibration as a function of applied frequency; the amplitude is maximum at resonant frequency. For isotropic materials the relationships between resonance frequencies, elastic moduli and acoustic wave velocities are well known.
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