Effect of Multiple Hydraulic Fractures on Gas-Well Performance
- H.S. Al-Hashim (King Fahd U. of Petr. and Min.) | Mimoune Kissami (King Fahd U. of Petr. and Min.) | H.Y. Al-Yousef (King Fahd U. of Petr. and Min.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- June 1993
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 558 - 563
- 1993. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.1 Tight Gas, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 3 Production and Well Operations, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.5.4 Multistage Fracturing, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 2.5.1 Fracture design and containment, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing
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This paper describes the use of a single-phase 2D numerical model to study the performance of a well intersected by two perpendicular vertical fractures assumed to have either infinite or finite conductivities. Analysis of the simulated drawdown tests at a constant flow rate showed that the transient flow behavior of a well intersected by finite-conductivity (CfD<500) perpendicular fractures does not exhibit the bilinear and formation linear flow periods. However, when fracture conductivities were infinite (CfD =500), the formation linear flow period was observed. This period was used to determine the fracture halflength and gave a fracture half-length equal to the sum of the two fracture half-lengths (xf + yf). The beginning of the pseudoradial flow period for any conductivity was found to decrease as yf/xf increased and to increase as the fracture conductivities increased for a given yf/xf. A single hydraulic fracture gave higher productivity than two fractures of the same total length when fracture conductivity was infinite. However, when fracture conductivity was low, the two fractures gave higher productivity than the single fracture.
Hydraulic fracturing is an effective way to increase the productivity of wells producing from low-permeability formations. Considerable research has been conducted to determine the effect of hydraulic fractures on well performance and pressure-transient behavior. The results have been used to improve the design of hydraulic fractures.
The increasing use of hydraulic fracturing to improve the productivity of oil and gas wells in low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in many research efforts aimed at increasing fracturing capabilities and evaluating fracture characteristics in the postfracturing period.
The massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) treatment is now a proven technique for developing commercial wells in low-permeability or tight gas formations. The purpose of MHF is to expose a large surface area of the low-permeability formation (in-situ permeability =0.1 md) to flow into the wellbore.
Over the past few decades, hydraulic fracturing and explosive shooting of wells have been used to improve the productivity of tight reservoirs. An alternative to these techniques, one that uses certain features of both but appears better for creating multiple fractures, is tailored-pulse loading.
Warpinski et al. in 1979 and Schmidt et al. in 1980 demonstrated that propellants can create multiple fractures in the field without damaging the wellbore region. Their results indicated that the long loading time of the pulse allows greater fracture extension and thus gives more opportunity for connecting a wellbore to the reservoir's natural fracture system.
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