Advancements in Dynamic-Kill Calculations for Blowout Wells
- G.E. Kouba (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co.) | G.R. MacDougall (Chevron Canada Resources) | B.W. Schumacher (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- September 1993
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 189 - 194
- 1993. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.4 Scale, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 1.7.5 Well Control, 5.6.8 Well Performance Monitoring, Inflow Performance, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 1.6 Drilling Operations
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This paper addresses the development, interpretation, and use of dynamic kill equations. To this end, three simple calculation techniques are developed for determining the minimum dynamic kill rate. Two techniques contain only single-phase calculations and are independent of reservoir inflow performance. Despite these limitations, these two methods are useful for bracketing the minimum flow rates necessary to kill a blowing well. For the third technique, a simplified mechanistic multiphase-flow model is used to determine a most-probable minimum kill rate.
The dynamic kill method is a proven technique for killing a blowing well with a fluid that is too light to kill the well statically. Blount and Soeiinah and Lynch et al. reported two successful dynamic kill operations. The main objective of the dynamic kill calculation techniques is to determine the minimum injection rate of available kill fluid necessary to stop reservoir fluid flow into the wellbore.
Two basic options are available for injecting kill fluid into a blowing well (Fig. 1). The preferred first option is the inwell kill, where kill fluid is introduced from the surface directly into the blowing well. When an inwell kill is impractical, a second option is to drill relief wells directionally and inject kill fluid into the formation close to the blowing well. For either option, accurate prediction of the kill rate is key in planning and preparing for a kill. The kill rate magnitude may determine whether an inwell kill is practical or whether a relief well must be drilled. The size and number of relief wells, amount and treatment of kill fluid, size and quantity of pumping equipment, and pressure rating considerations all depend on the magnitude of the required kill rate.
Accurate kill rate prediction is compromised by uncertainties in our knowledge of the reservoir, flow-path geometry, and formation and injected-kill-fluid properties. Furthermore, the pressure and flow-rate predictions of multiphase fluids in pipes can be relatively uncertain.
The objective of this work is to present uncomplicated methods to determine reliably the upper and lower limits of the injection rate needed to kill a well. We also present a simplified multiphase solution technique for establishing a conservative most-probable minimum kill rate. In the following discussions, we consider only fluid flow in the wellbore and ignore fluid loss outside the wellbore.
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