Interrelationship Between Critical Cement Properties and Volume Changes During Cement Setting
- F.L. Sabins (Halliburton Services) | D.L. Sutton (Halliburton Services)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling Engineering
- Publication Date
- June 1991
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 88 - 94
- 1991. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.2.3 Fluid Loss Control, 1.14.3 Cement Formulation (Chemistry, Properties), 4.3.1 Hydrates, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 2.2.2 Perforating, 1.6 Drilling Operations
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This paper surveys cementing terminology for clarifying cement setting and its capability to control interzonal fluid flow. It also demonstrates the results of several test procedures designed to measure two or more cement properties simultaneously under conditions that simulate job applications. These procedures test the validity of theories and procedures for controlling annular gas flow, cement bonding, interzonal channeling, and intrazone isolation. From these results, guidelines may be developed for using laboratory data to determine times for temperature logs, perforating, and stimulation treatments. Existing laboratory equipment was modified and new equipment was designed to measure the interrelationships between static-gel-strength development, volume reductions, hydration temperatures, permeability changes, net plastic-state shrinkage, and compressive strength.
Test results indicated that (1) hydration volume reduction (HVR) during the transition period is relatively small and shows a general correlation to unit volume cement content; (2) temperature increases from hydration show a rough correlation to static-gel-strength development; (3) permeability during static-gel-strength development decreases rapidly and shows a definite correlation to fluid-loss test values; (4) plastic-state shrinkage is only a very small part of the total HVR; (5) a general correlation exists between compressive strength, HVR, and heat of hydration; (6) the HVR for an expansive cement was greater than that of a nonexpansive cement, but its plasticstate shrinkage was less. plasticstate shrinkage was less. Introduction
Only a cursory review of current gas-migration and cement-bonding theories is needed to discover a serious lack of standardization of terms and definitions used for cement properties. This is especially true for changes occurring during the fluid to solid transition period and early strength development periods. period and early strength development periods. Even when some consensus on definitions exists, there is often no clear explanation of how one specific property relates to another.
Many gas-migration and interzonal-communications control methods and materials are based on the assumption that changes in certain physical properties are somehow directly responsible for any job-quality improvements. With little consideration for other properties and events concurrent with the measured properties, properties and events concurrent with the measured properties, theories have been expanded that give major credit to minor itemse.g., gas permeability of the cement matrix, mixing-water density, inflow restrictions from filter cake, and, to some extent, gasdispersion (foaming) properties of the cement.
Cement-bond improvement theories suffer a similar malady. Theories that concentrate on one property while neglecting changes in other properties often do more harm than good. For example, cement expansion is often overemphasized, while the influence of HVR, plastic-state shrinkage, fluid loss, and fluid inflow are neglected.
Most of the common terms have been used for years and need only to be clarified to establish their definitions and to discourage conveniently changing their meaning to explain a new theory. Such terms include plastic-state shrinkage, initial set, final set, bulk volume, total solids volume, HVR, porosity, permeability, heat of hydration, and expansion. Definitions for these terms are mostly borrowed from concrete technology; to apply them to deep-well cementing, specifications regarding application temperature and pressure must be included. pressure must be included. The terms used to describe the chronology of deep-well cementing are more esoteric: mixing, fluid, placement, dormant transition, and hardening periods. Common to the transition period are such terms as static time, zero gel time, thixotropic gel period, nonominal transition period, and hydration gelation period. The hardening period (as applied to deep-well cementing) is from the first solid properties to initial set, final set, and ultimate strength.
This paper clarifies the more accepted definitions for general cementing terms. The definitions of the chronological terms are based on typical usage in the literature and internal company reports and bulletins. The "specialized" terms include those originating in published works but are based largely on our experience with published works but are based largely on our experience with scalemodel cement tests and the development of laboratory testing equipment.
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