Dynamic and Static Filtrate-Loss Techniques for Monitoring Filter-Cake Quality Improves Drilling-Fluid Performance
- B.G. Chesser (Milpark Drilling Fluids) | D.E. Clark (Milpark Drilling Fluids) | W.V. Wise (Milpark Drilling Fluids)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- September 1994
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 189 - 192
- 1994. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6 Drilling Operations, 4.3.1 Hydrates, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 1.8 Formation Damage, 1.6.1 Drilling Operation Management, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 1.11.2 Drilling Fluid Selection and Formulation (Chemistry, Properties), 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 5.4.10 Microbial Methods
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This paper describes properties that are desirable in a water-based filter cake and test methods that can be used to measure these properties. One method uses a dynamic filtrate-loss apparatus that stirs the fluid mechanically during filtration. Test results show that the initial dynamic filter-cake formation is very important in controlling all future filtration properties and cake quality. The various factors affecting filter-cake quality and how they can be controlled to give better field performance are discussed.
Control of drilling-fluid filtration has long been recognized as a part of good drilling practice. Inadequate control of this drilling-fluid property has been associated with borehole instability, excessive torque and drag, pressure differential sticking, and formation damage. Control of drilling-fluid filtration characteristics includes not only control of the filtrate volume per unit area and unit time but also the quality of the resulting filter cake formed in the wellbore.
Unfortunately, less attention is normally given to the filter-cake properties than is given to the filtration rate. The cake thickness is not always 2/32 in., as is often implied, and the properties are not always the same. Filter-cake evaluation is highly subjective, and therein lies much of the reluctance of the mud engineer to describe it in a report. This paper discusses filter-cake properties and gives our opinion on filter-cake characteristics that are most desirable for minimizing wellbore problems associated with filtration.
Drilling engineers know that the first filter-cake deposition in rotary drilling occurs during circulation of drilling fluid. Static cake is formed during pipe trips or other periods of pump "shutdown." Because deposition of the dynamic cake influences all future cake buildup, the quality of this initial cake formation is very important. API RP 13B-1 describes procedures for low-temperature/lowpressure and high-temperature/high-pressure (HTHP) filtration; however, both procedures are based on static filtration instruments. Krueger concluded that the static API filtration test does not define dynamic fluid-loss characteristics of the mud and is of doubtful value as an indicator of the effectiveness of a given chemical treatment under drilling conditions. We think that static filtration measurements can be used with reasonable predictability to choose and to quantify filtration-control additives, but that they are inadequate for complete filter-cake evaluation. The basis for this position will be given later.
|File Size||330 KB||Number of Pages||4|