A Comprehensive Method for Diverter-Performance Evaluation during Stimulation of Long-Interval Heterogeneous Reservoirs: A Case Study
- Alireza R. Safari (Mehran Engineering and Well Services Company) | Hamed Panjalizadeh (Mehran Engineering and Well Services Company) | Maysam Pournik (University of Texas Rio Grande Valley) | Hamed Jafari (Mehran Engineering and Well Services Company) | Alireza Zangeneh (Mehran Engineering and Well Services Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- June 2020
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2020.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- acidizing evaluation, multiple formation reservoir, inverse injectivity, matrix stimulation, chemical diverter
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 13 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The accomplishment of matrix stimulation in highly contrasted permeability reservoirs is critically dependent on diversion. Consequently, assessment of the diversion performance is a key to determine the success of stimulation. However, there are still doubts on the evaluation of diversion effectiveness, especially in long-interval heterogeneous reservoirs. When a diverter enters the formation, a hump in the surface pressure curve is usually expected. Then, it can be interpreted as supporting evidence for diversion. However, this is a simplification of the fluid-diversion process. It could be possible that a hump is not observed during a diversion stage, although it is effective. Therefore, what should be done? To overcome this challenge, we propose a more-accurate diversion-evaluation method and validate it with available matrix-stimulation data.
Three methods were introduced in the literature to evaluate matrix-stimulation performance: Paccaloni, Prouvost, and Chan [inverse injectivity (i.e., Iinv)] methods (Prouvost and Economides 1987, 1989; Paccaloni and Tambini 1993; Chan et al. 2003). The latter is easy to use and accurate, which accounts for transient flow effects. In this paper, the inverse injectivity method is modified and validated with the real data of two matrix-acidizing operations in a gas/condensate field. The performed modifications in the evaluation process include a bottomhole-pressure-calculation procedure, which is validated with available drillstem-test (DST) matrix-stimulation data, and simultaneous utilization of Iinv and its derivative plot. Humps in the Iinv plot, which can be interpreted as diverter performance, are sometimes so small that it is difficult to distinguish the diverter effect from possible noises in the data. Here, the derivative plot of Iinv is used as a complementary tool to improve the interpretation process.
Results indicate that for both wells in this study, the modified Iinv shows clear humps when diverters enter the reservoir. In addition, exactly when Iinv builds up, a sign change in the derivative plot is observed. This shows that these two parameters have a confirming behavior. Finally, pre/post-stimulation production data were used to practically prove the calculations behind the method.
Here, the target of design was to divert stimulation fluids to the low-permeability bottom layer because it was both a high-pressure and high-hydrocarbon reserve. Per production-logging data, the majority of production before stimulation was originated from a sublayer. In the first operation, with the rare appearance of surface pressure humps, Iinv and its derivative showed satisfactory outputs of diversion occurrence. After stimulation, production logging confirmed the diversion of flow and nearly uniform production across the targeted interval.
Hence, this indicates that the modified method accurately demonstrates the performance of the diversion system in acidizing operations with long perforated intervals, even if there is a rare distinct pressure hump in the surface. Therefore, this could be adapted either for cases where there is no access to the production logging or for the cases in which the hump in surface pressure is not observed.
|File Size||6 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Ahmed, D., Ramondenc, P., and Baez, F. 2014. Advanced Understanding of Matrix Stimulation Treatments through In-Job and Post-Job Evaluation of Real-Time Downhole Measurements with Coiled Tubing: A Case Study. Paper presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 26–28 February. SPE-168156-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/168156-MS.
Al-Ghamdi, A. H., Mahmoud, M. A., Wang, G. et al. 2014. Acid Diversion by Use of Viscoelastic Surfactants: The Effects of Flow Rate and Initial Permeability Contrast. SPE J. 19 (6): 1203–1216. SPE-142564-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/142564-PA.
Buijse, M. A. 1997. Understanding Wormholing Mechanisms Can Improve Acid Treatments in Carbonate Formations. Paper presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, The Netherlands, 2–3 June. SPE-38166-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/38166-MS.
Chan, K. S., Flamant, N. C., and Helou, H. N. 2003. A Simple, Robust Interpretation Method for Matrix Acidizing Treatments—Part 1: Theoretical Basis and Field Example. Paper presented at the Middle East Oil Show, Bahrain, 9–12 June. SPE-81466-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/81466-MS.
Crafton, J. W. 1997. Oil and Gas Well Evaluation Using the Reciprocal Productivity Index Method. Paper presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 9–11 March. SPE-37409-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/37409-MS.
Crafton, J. W. 1998. Well Evaluation Using Early Time Post-Stimulation Flowback Data. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 27–30 September. SPE-49223-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/49223-MS.
Dhufairi, M. A., Al-Mutairi, S. H., Ahmed, D. et al. 2013. Field Optimization of Acid Concentration of Visco-Elastic Based Acid Using Fiber Optic Enabled Coiled Tubing (FOECT). Paper presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Beijing, China, 26–28 March. IPTC-16498-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-16498-MS.
Esrafili-Dizaji, B., Rahimpour-Bonab, H., Harchegani, F. K. et al. 2013. Great Exploration Targets in the Persian Gulf: The North Dome/South Pars Fields. Finding Petroleum, http://www.findingpetroleum.com/n/Great_exploration_targets_in_the_Persian_Gulf_the_North_DomeSouth_Pars_Fields/ab3518c5.aspx (accessed June 2020).
Fredd, C. N. and Fogler, H. S. 1998. Influence of Transport and Reaction on Wormhole Formation in Porous Media. AIChE J. 44 (9): 1933–1949. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690440902.
Furui, K., Burton, R. C., Burkhead, D. W. et al. 2012. A Comprehensive Model of High-Rate Matrix-Acid Stimulation for Long Horizontal Wells in Carbonate Reservoirs: Part II—Wellbore/Reservoir Coupled-Flow Modeling and Field Application. SPE J. 17 (1): 280–291. SPE-155497-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/155497-PA.
Glasbergen, G. and Buijse, M. 2006. Improved Acid Diversion Design Using a Placement Simulator. Paper presented at the SPE Russian Oil and Gas Technical Conference and Exhibition, Moscow, Russia, 3–6 October. SPE-102412-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/102412-MS.
Glasbergen, G., Yeager, V. J., Reyes, R. P. et al. 2010. Fluid-Diversion Monitoring: The Key to Treatment Optimization. SPE Prod & Oper 25 (3): 262–274. SPE-122353-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/122353-PA.
Harrison, N. W. 1972. Diverting Agents—History and Application. J Pet Technol 24 (5): 593–598. SPE-3653-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/3653-PA.
Hill, A. D. and Zhu, D. 1996. Real-Time Monitoring of Matrix Acidizing Including the Effects of Diverting Agents. SPE Prod & Fac 11 (2): 95–101. SPE-28548-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/28548-PA.
Hoefner, M. L. and Fogler, H. S. 1989. Fluid-Velocity and Reaction-Rate Effects During Carbonate Acidizing: Application of Network Model. SPE Prod Eng 4 (1): 56–62. SPE-15573-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/15573-PA.
Kalfayan, L. J. and Martin, A. N. 2009. The Art and Practice of Acid Placement and Diversion: History, Present State, and Future. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 4–7 October. SPE-124141-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/124141-MS.
Kamel, A. H. A. and Shaqlaih, A. S. 2015. Frictional Pressure Losses of Fluids Flowing in Circular Conduits: A Review. SPE Drill & Compl 30 (2): 129–140. SPE-176018-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/176018-PA.
Leal, J. A., Duarte, J, Al-Ghurairi, F. A. et al. 2013. Post Stimulation Fluid Recovery, Every Drop Counts: Case Histories from Saudi Arabia. Paper presented at the SPE Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition, Muscat, Oman, 28–30 January. SPE-164004-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/164004-MS.
Medina, R. 2007. Productivity Tests: The Method for the Pre-and Post-Evaluation of Workover/Stimulation Jobs. Paper presented at the Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 31 March–3 April. SPE-106728-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/106728-MS.
Morgenthaler, L. N., Burnett, D. B., and Kiel, V. D. 1996. Model Wellbore Evaluation of Diverter Effectiveness Confirmed by Field Results. Paper presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 14–15 February. SPE-31140-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/31140-MS.
Nasr-El-Din, H. A., Hill, A. D., Chang, F. F. et al. 2007. Chemical Diversion Techniques Used for Carbonate Matrix Acidizing: An Overview and Case Histories. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, Texas, USA, 28 February–2 March. SPE-106444-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/106444-MS.
Paccaloni, G. and Tambini, M. 1993. Advances in Matrix Stimulation Technology. J Pet Technol 45 (3): 256–263. SPE-20623-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/20623-PA.
Panga, M. K. R., Ziauddin, M, and Balakotaiah, V. 2005. Two-Scale Continuum Model for Simulation of Wormholes in Carbonate Acidization. AIChE J. 51 (12): 3231–3248. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.10574.
Prouvost, L. P. and Economides, M. J. 1987. Real-Time Evaluation of Matrix Acidizing Treatments. J Pet Sci Eng 1 (2): 145–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(87)90005-2.
Prouvost, L. P. and Economides, M. J. 1989. Applications of Real-Time Matrix-Acidizing Evaluation Method. SPE Prod Eng 4 (4): 401–407. SPE-17156-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/17156-PA.
Safari, A. R., Moradi, M. D., Hassani, A. et al. 2016. Numerical Simulation and X-Ray Imaging Validation of Wormhole Propagation during Acid Core-Flood Experiments in a Carbonate Gas Reservoir. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 30 (March): 539–547. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2016.02.036.
Shuchart, C. E., Jackson, S, Mendez-Santiago, J. et al. 2009. Effective Stimulation of Very Thick, Layered Carbonate Reservoirs without the Use of Mechanical Isolation. Paper presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, Qatar, 7–9 December. IPTC-13621-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-13621-MS.
Sinha, B. K. and Pugh, T. D. Jr. 1977. Stimulation Evaluation by Type Curves: Case Histories. Paper presented at the SPE Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference, Midland, Texas, USA, 10–11 March. SPE-6373-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/6373-MS.
Tabatabaei Bafruei, S. M. 2011. Real-Time Evaluation of Stimulation and Diversion in Horizontal Wells. PhD dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA (December 2011).
Zareiforoush, A., Safari, A. R., and Momeni, A. 2018. Comprehensive Workflow of Matrix Acidizing Design and Analysis in Multi-Layer/Multi-Zone Reservoir-Offshore Case History. Paper presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 12–15 November. SPE-193167-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/193167-MS.
Zhao, L., Derksen, J., and Gupta, R. 2010. Simulations of Axial Mixing of Liquids in a Long Horizontal Pipe for Industrial Applications. Energy Fuels 24 (11): 5844–5850. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef100846r.