Effect of Fluid Pressure and Pore Structure on Tight Sand Gas Saturation—Evidence from Micro-CT Simulation Experiment
- Yanjie Gong (Petrochina) | Mengjun Zhao (Petrochina) | Qingong Zhuo (Petrochina) | Keyu Liu (China University of Petroleum (East China))
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- August 2020
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 879 - 895
- 2020.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- gas saturation, fluid pressure, tight gas, pore structure, X-ray CT
- 9 in the last 30 days
- 76 since 2007
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Numerous technical papers have been published on the reservoir evaluation of tight sand gas in recent decades. It is believed that tight sand gas is characterized by low permeability, complex pore structure, abnormal pressure, and low gas saturation. Researchers have characterized tight gas in terms of, for example, statistics; and some of them are increasingly interested in the effect of fluid pressure and pore structure on gas saturation. However, there is still a lack of effective experimental and mechanism analysis.
The focus of this paper is to investigate the effect of two factors on controlling the tight gas saturation. A method was proposed for determining the in-situ injection pressure of the DB 2 gas reservoir in the Kuqa area during the gas-accumulation period, and the result was 1.2 MPa. A polyetheretherketone carbon-fiber core holder (maximum temperature 180°C, maximum confining pressure 30 MPa) was designed for the microcomputed-tomography (CT) simulation experiment. After that, four physical simulation experiments of different fluid pressures (0.1, 0.5, 1.5, and 5.0 MPa) were implemented using X-ray CT and the new core holder to study the effect of fluid pressure and pore structure on gas saturation.
The results show that the fluid pressure and micropore connectivity are important factors for gas-saturation increase; the number of gas clusters (connected pores containing gas) increases with the increase of fluid pressure and the maximum volume of gas clusters increases with the increase of pore connectivity. The connected pores with the largest volume are an important source of gas-saturation contribution. The three types of modes (the blowing balloon mode, stitching mode, and composite mode) of microscopic gas-cluster formation are discussed. The blowing balloon mode is key to gas-saturation growth in the period of low fluid pressure or the early stage of the injection process. The stitching mode is key to gas-saturation growth in the period of high fluid pressure or the late stage of the injection process.
The above research system investigates the quantitative control of fluid parameters (pressure) and reservoir parameters (pore structure) on gas saturation, which might change the situation where previous research was too focused on the pore-structure and fluid-pressure characterization, with a lack of quantitative control analysis of reservoir gas saturation. It provides a valuable reference and framework for the reader to conduct further quantitative research on tight gas saturation.
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