Nuclear-Magnetic-Resonance Monitoring of Mass Exchange in a Low-Permeability Matrix/Fracture Model During CO2 Cyclic Injection: A Mechanistic Study
- Bing Wei (Southwest Petroleum University) | Ke Gao (Southwest Petroleum University) | Tao Song (Southwest Petroleum University) | Xiang Zhang (Southwest Petroleum University) | Wanfen Pu (Southwest Petroleum University) | Xingguang Xu (The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) | Colin Wood (The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2020
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 440 - 450
- 2020.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- pore-scale behaviors, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance, cyclic CO2 injection, matrix-fracture mass exchange, NMR, tight sandstone reservoirs
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- 153 since 2007
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Recent reports have demonstrated that carbon dioxide (CO2) injection can further raise the oil recovery of fractured tight reservoirs after natural depletion, with major projects in progress worldwide. There is, however, a lack of understanding of the mass-exchange process between the matrix and fracture at pore scale. In this study, a matrix (0.8 md)/fracture model was designed to experimentally simulate a CO2-cyclic-injection process at 80°C and 35 MPa (Lucaogou tight formation). The oil (dead-oil) concentration in the matrix and fracture was continuously monitored online using a low-field nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) technique aiming to quantify the oil recovery in situ and clarify the mass-exchange behaviors. The results showed that CO2 cyclic injection was promising in improving the oil recovery of fractured tight reservoirs. Nevertheless, the oil-recovery rates rapidly declined with the cycle of CO2 injection and the incremental oil was primarily produced by large pores with 100 ms > T2 > 3.0 ms. The NMR T2 profiles of the model evidenced the drainage of the matrix oil by CO2 toward the fracture. Because of the light-hydrocarbon extraction, the produced oils became lighter than the original oil. We noted that the main driving forces of the incremental oil recovery were CO2 displacement, CO2/oil interactions (mainly extraction and solubility), and pressure gradient (depressurization). In the first cycle, the CO2/oil interactions driven by CO2 diffusion during soaking enhanced the mass exchange between the matrix and the fracture. However, from the second cycle, CO2/oil interactions and CO2 displacement became insignificant. The results of this study supplement earlier findings and can provide insights into the CO2-enhanced-oil- recovery (EOR) mechanisms in fractured tight reservoirs.
NOTE: Supporting information available.
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