Quantification of the Viscoelastic Effects During Polymer Flooding: A Critical Review
- Madhar S. Azad (University of Alberta) | Japan J. Trivedi (University of Alberta)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- December 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2,731 - 2,757
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- polymer rheology, polymer flooding, viscoelastic behavior, SOR reduction
- 15 in the last 30 days
- 344 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Since the late 1960s, several enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) researchers have developed various continuum and pore-scale viscoelastic models for quantifying the altered injectivity and incremental oil recovery because of the polymer's viscoelastic effects. In this paper, limitations in each of the continuum and pore-scale models are discussed. the critiques are made on the basis of the contradicting literature.
Most of the earlier models rely on the exclusive use of the Deborah number to quantify the viscoelastic effects. The Deborah number overlooks mechanical-degradation effects. There exists a large difference in the magnitudes of the reported Deborah number in the literature because of the inconsistency in using different relaxation time and residential time. Oscillatory relaxation time used by most of the EOR researchers to calculate the Deborah number failed to distinguish the different porous-media behavior of the viscous and viscoelastic polymer. Therefore, the accuracy of relaxation time obtained from the weak oscillatory field for EOR applications in porous media is questionable. The main limitation with all the existing continuum viscoelastic models is the empirical reliance on coreflood data to predict the shear-thickening effects in porous media. The strain hardening index, needed for quantifying the thickening regime, cannot be obtained by the conventional shear rheological techniques. The conventional capillary number (Nc) failed to explain the reduction in residual oil saturation (Sor) during viscoelastic polymer flooding. Pore-scale viscoelastic models use the conventional oscillatory Deborah number for quantifying the polymer's viscoelastic effects on Sor reduction. However, this approach has many drawbacks.
Discussions on the shortcomings of the existing viscoelastic models caution the current chemical EOR (cEOR) researchers about their applications and potential consequences. Also, this research provides a path forward for future research to address the limitations associated with the quantification of viscoelastic flow through porous media.
|File Size||755 KB||Number of Pages||27|
AbdelAlim, A. H. and Hamielec, A. E. 1973. Shear Degradation of Water-Soluble Polymers. I. Degradation of Polyacrylamide in a High-Shear Couette Viscometer. J Appl Polym Sci 17 (12): 3769–3778. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1973.070171218.
Abrams, A. 1975. The Influence of Fluid Viscosity, Interfacial Tension, and Flow Velocity on Residual Oil Saturation Left by Waterflood. Soc Pet Eng J 15 (5): 437–447. SPE-5050-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/5050-PA.
Afsharpoor, A., Balhoff, M. T., Bonnecaze, R. et al. 2012. CFD Modelling of the Effect of Polymer Elasticity on the Residual Oil Saturation at the Pore-Scale. J Pet Sci Eng 94: 79–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2012.06.027.
Al-Qattan, A., Sanaseeri, A., Al-Saleh, Z. et al. 2018. Low Salinity Waterflood and Low Salinity Polymer Injection in the Wara Reservoir of the Greater Burgan Field. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 26–28 March. SPE-190481-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/190481-MS.
Anna, S. L. and McKinley, G. H. 2001. Elasto-Capillary Thinning and Breakup of Model Elastic Liquids. J Rheol 45 (1): 115–138. https://doi.org/10.1122/1.1332389.
Azad, M. S. and Sultan, A. S. 2014. Extending the Applicability of Chemical EOR to High Temperature, High Salinity and Fractured Carbonate Formation Through Viscoelastic Surfactants. Presented at the SPE Saudi Arabia Section Technical Symposium and Exhibition, Al-Khobar, 21–24April. SPE-172188-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/172188-MS.
Azad, M. S. and Trivedi, J. J. 2017. Injectivity Behavior of Copolymer and Associative Polymer Decoded Using Extensional Viscosity Characterization: Effect of Hydrophobic Association. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, 21–23April. SPE-185668-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/185668-MS.
Azad, M. S. and Trivedi, J. J. 2018a. Does Polymer’s Viscoelasticity Influence the Heavy Oil Sweep Efficiency and Injectivity at 1ft/Day? Presented at the SPE International Heavy Oil Conference and Exhibition, Kuwait City, Kuwait, 10–12 December. SPE-193771-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/193771-MS.
Azad, M. S. and Trivedi, J. J. 2018b. Extensional Rheological Data From Ex-Situ Measurements for Predicting Porous Media Behavior of the Viscoelastic EOR Polymers. Data in Brief 20: 293–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.07.066.
Azad, M. S. and Trivedi, J. J. 2019. A Novel Viscoelastic Model for Predicting the Synthetic Polymer Viscoelastic Behavior in Porous Media Using Direct Extensional Rheological Measurements. Fuel 235: 218–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2018.06.030.
Azad, M. S., Dalsania, Y. K., and Trivedi, J. J. 2018a. Capillary Breakup Extensional Rheometry of Associative and Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide for Oil Recovery Applications. J Appl Polym Sci 135 (22): 46253–46264. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.46253.
Azad, M. S., Dalsania, Y. K., Trivedi, J. J. 2018b. Understanding the Flow Behavior of Copolymer and Associative Polymer Using Extensional Viscosity Characterization: Effect of Hydrophobic Association. Can J Chem Eng 96: 2498–2508. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.23169.
Barnes, H. A., Hutton, J. F., and Walters, K. 2010. An Introduction to Rheology, first edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B. V.
Beeder, J., Skartsad, A., Prasad, D. 2018. Biopolymer Injection in Offshore Single-Well Test. Presented at the 80th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Copenhagen, 11–14 June. SPE-190758-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/190758-MS.
Bird, R. B., Armstrong, R. C., and Hassager, O. 1987. Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids, Volume 2: Kinetic Theory, 2nd edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Bhardwaj, A., Miller, E., and Rosthein, J. P. 2007. Filament Stretching and Capillary Breakup Extensional Rheometry Measurements of Viscoelastic Wormlike Micelle Solutions. Rheol J 51 (4): 693–719. https://doi.org/10.1122/1.2718974.
Burnett, D. B. 1975. Laboratory Studies of Biopolymer Injectivity Behavior Effectiveness of Enzyme Clarifications. Presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, Ventura, California, 2–4 April. SPE-5372-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/5372-MS.
Cakl, J. and Machac, I. 1995. Pressure Drop in the Flow of Viscoelastic Fluids Through Fixed Beds of Particles. Collect Czech Chem Commun 60: 1124–1139. https://doi.org/10.1135/cccc19951124.
Carreau, P. J., DeKee, D. C. R., and Chhabra, R. P. 1997. Rheology of Polymeric Systems, Principles and Application. Cincinnati, Ohio: Hanser/Gardner Publications.
Castelleto, W. J., Hamley, I. W., Xue, W. et al. 2004. Rheological and Structural Characterization of Hydrophobically Modified Polyacrylamide Solutions in the Semi-Dilute Regime. Macromolecules 37: 1492–1501. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma035039d.
Castor, T. P., Edwards, J. B., and Passman, F. J. 1981. Response of Mobility Control Agents to Shear, Electrochemical, and Biological Stress. In Surface Phenomena in Enhanced Oil Recovery, ed. D. O. Shah, 773–820. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Cannela, W. J., Huh, C., and Seright, R. S. 1988. Prediction of Xanthan Rheology in Porous Media. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 2–5 October. SPE-18089-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/18089-MS.
Chang, H. L. 1978. Polymer Flooding Technology Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. J Pet Technol 30 (8): 1113–1128. SPE-7043-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/7043-PA.
Chatzis, I. and Morrow, N. R. 1984. Correlation of Capillary Number Relationship for Sandstone. SPE J. 24 (5): 555–562. SPE-10114-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/10114-PA.
Chatzis, I., Kuntamukkula, M. S., Morrow, N. R. 1988. Effect of Capillary Number on the Microstructure of the Residual Oil in the Strongly Water-Wet Sandstones. SPE Res Eng 3 (3): 902–912. SPE-13213-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/13213-PA.
Chauveteau, G. 1981. Molecular Interpretation of Several Different Properties of Flow of Coiled Polymer Solutions Through Porous Media in Oil Recovery Conditions. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 4–7 October. SPE-10060-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/10060-MS.
Chauveteau, G. 1986. Fundamental Criteria in Polymer Flow Through Porous Media and Their Relative Importance in the Performance Differences of Mobility-Control Buffers. In Water Soluble Polymers, Advances in Chemistry, Vol. 213, Chap. 14, 227–267. American Chemical Society. https://doi.org/10.1021/ba-1986-0213.ch014.
Chen, G. 2006. Mathematical Model of Enhanced Oil Recovery for Viscous-Elastic Polymer Flooding. J Tsinghua Univ 46 (6): 882–885.
Chen, G., Han, P., Shao, Z. et al. 2011. History Matching Method for High Concentration Viscoelasticity Polymer Flood in the Daqing Oilfield. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia, 19–21 July. SPE-144538-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/144538-MS.
Chiou, C. S. and Kellerhals, G. E. 1981. Polymer/Surfactant Transport in Micellar Flooding. SPE J. 21 (5): 603–612. SPE-9354-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/9354-PA.
Choplin, L. and Sabatie, J. 1986. Threshold-Type Shear Thickening in Polymeric Solutions. Rheol Acta 25 (6): 570–579. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01358165.
Christopher, R. H. and Middleman, S. 1965. Power Law Flow Through a Packed Tube. Ind Eng Chem Fundam 4 (4): 422–426. https://doi.org/10.1021/i160016a011.
Chukwudeme, E. A., Fjelde, I., Abeysinghe, K. P. et al. 2011. Effect of Interfacial Tension on Water/Oil Relative Permeability and Remaining Saturation With Consideration of Capillary Pressure. SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (1): 37–48. SPE-143028-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/143028-PA.
Clarke, A., Howe. A. M., Mitchell, J. et al. 2016. How Viscoelastic Polymer Flooding Enhanced Displacement Efficiency. SPE J. 21 (3): 675–687. SPE-174654-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/174654-PA.
Clasen, C., Plog, J. P., Kullicke, W. M. et al. 2006. How Dilute are Dilute Solutions in Extensional Flows? J Rheol 50 (6): 849–881. https://doi.org/10.1122/1.2357595.
Clemens, T., Deckers, M., Kornberger, M. et al. 2013. Polymer Solution Injection—Near Wellbore Dynamics and Displacement Efficiency, Pilot Test Results, Matzen Field, Austria. Presented at the EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC, London, 10–13 June. SPE-164904-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/164904-MS.
Cottin, C., Bourgeois, M., Bursaux, R. et al. 2014. Secondary and Tertiary Polymer Flooding on the Highly Permeable Reservoir Cores: Experimental Results. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, 31 March–2 April. SPE-169692-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169692-MS.
Culter, J. D., Mayhan, K. G., Patterson, G. K. et al. 1972. Entrance Effects on Capillary Degradation of Dilute Polystyrene Solutions. J Appl Polym Sci 16: 3381–3385. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1972.070161227.
Culter, J. D., Zakin, J. L., and Patterson, G. K. 1975. Mechanical Degradation of Dilute Solutions of High Polymers in Capillary Tube Flow. J Appl Polym Sci 19: 3235–3240. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1975.070191210.
De, S., Krishnan, P., Schaaf, J. V. D. et al. 2018. Viscoelastic Effects on the Residual Oil Distribution in the Flows Through Pillared Micro Channels. J Colloid Interface Sci 510: 262–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2017.09.069.
Dealy, J. M. 2010. Weissenberg and Deborah Numbers and Their Definition and Use. Rheol Bull 79 (2): 14–18. Delamaide, E. 2016. Comparison of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Polymer Flood in Heavy Oil—Field Results. Presented at the SPE Trinidad and Tobago Section Energy Resources Conference, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 13–15 June. SPE-180852-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/180852-MS.
Delshad, M., Kim, D. H., Magbagbeola, O. A. et al. 2008. Mechanistic Interpretation and Utilization of Viscoelastic Behaviour of Polymer Solutions for Improved Polymer-Flood Efficiency. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24–28 April. SPE-113620-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/113620-MS.
Delshad, M., Pope, G. A., and Sepehrnoori, K. 1996. A Compositional Simulator for Modeling Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation, 1 Formulation. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 23 (4): 303–327. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-7722(95)00106-9.
Deiber, J. A. and Schowalter, W. R. 1981. Modeling the Flow of Viscoelastic Fluids Through Porous Media. AIChE J 27: 912–920. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690270606.
Dehangpour, H. and Kuru, H. 2009. A New Look at the Viscoelastic Fluid Flow in the Porous Media—A Possible Mechanism of Internal Cake Formation and Formation Damage Control. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oil Field Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 20–22 April. SPE-121640-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/121640-MS.
Dinic, J., Zhang, Y, Nallely, L. et al. 2016. Extensional Relaxation Time of Dilute, Aqueous Polymer Solutions. ACS Macro Lett 4 (7): 804–808. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.5b00393.
Doshi, S. R. and Dealy, J. M. 1987. Exponential Shear: A Strong Flow. J Rheol 31 (7): 563. https://doi.org/10.1122/1.549936.
Doughty, J. O. and Bogue, D. C. 1967. Experimental Evaluation of Viscoelastic Theories. Ind Eng Chem Fundam 6 (3): 388–393. https://doi.org/10.1021/i160023a011.
Dunlap, P. N., and Leal, L. 1987. Dilute Polystyrene Solutions in Extensional Flows—Birefringence and Flow Modification. J Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech 23: 5–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0257(87)80009-5.
Dupas, A., Henaut, I., Rousseau, D. et al. 2013. Impact of Mechanical Degradation on the Shear and Extensional Viscosities: Towards Better Injectivity Forecasts in Polymer Flooding Applications. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oil Field Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 8–10 April. SPE-164083-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/164083-MS.
Durst, F., Haas, R., and Interthal, W. 1987. The Nature of Flows Through Porous Media. J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech 22 (2): 169–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0257(87)80034-4.
Ehrenfried, D. 2013. Impact of Viscoelastic Polymer Floodingon Residual Oil Saturation in Sandstones. MS thesis, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Erincik, M. Z., Qi, P., Balhoff, M. T. et al. 2017. New Method to Reduce by Polymer Flooding. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 9–11 October.
Erincik, M. Z., Qi, P., Balhoff, M. T. et al. 2018. New Method To Reduce Residual Oil Saturation by Polymer Flooding. SPE J. 23 (5): 1944–1956. SPE-187230-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/187230-PA.
Farinato, R. S., and Yen, W. S. 1987. Polymer Degradation in Porous Media Flow. J Appl Polym Sci 33 (7): 2353–2368. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1987.070330708.
Ferguson, J., Walters, K., and Wolff, C. 1990. Shear and Extensional Flow of Polyacrylamide Solutions. Rheol Acta 29 (6): 571–579. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01329303.
Flew, S. and Sellin, R. H. J. 1993. Non-Newtonian Flow in Porous Media—A Laboratory Study of Polyacrylamide Solutions. J Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech 47: 169–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0257(93)80050-L.
Foster, W. R. 1973. A Low-Tension Waterflooding Process. J Pet Technol 25 (2): 205–210. SPE-3803-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/3803-PA.
Fred, H. L. W. 1979. Influences of Polymer Solution Properties on the Flow in the Porous Media. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, 23–26 September. SPE-8418-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/8418-MS.
Fuller, G. G., Cathey, C. A., Hubbard, B. et al. 1987. Extensional Viscosity Measurements of Low-Viscosity Fluids. J. Rheol 31: 235–249. https://doi.org/10.1122/1.549923.
Garrouch, A. A. and Gharbi, R. B. 2006. A Novel Model for Viscoelastic Fluid Flow in the Porous Media. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 24–27 September. SPE-102015-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/102015-MS.
Garnes, J. M., Mathisen. A. M., Scheie, A. et al. 1990. Capillary Number Relations for Some North Sea Reservoir Sandstones. Presented at the SPE EOR Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22–25 April. SPE-20264-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/20264-MS.
Gennes, D. P. G. 1974. Coil-Stretch Transition of Dilute Flexible Polymers Under Ultra-High Velocity Gradients. J Chem Phys 60 (12): 5030. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1681018.
Glasbergeren, G., Wever, D., Keijzer, E. et al. 2015. Injectivity Loss in Polymer Floods: Causes, Prevention and Mitigations. Presented at the SPE Kuwait Oil and Gas Show Conference, Kuwait City, Kuwait, 11–14 October. SPE-175383-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175383-MS.
Gogarty, W. B. 1967. Mobility Control With Polymer Solutions. SPE J. 7 (2): 161–173. SPE-1566-B. https://doi.org/10.2118/1566-B.
Green, D. and Willhite, P. 1998. Enhanced Oil Recovery, Vol. 6. Richardson, Texas: SPE Textbook Series.
Gumpenberger, T., Deckers, M., Kornberger, M. 2012. Experiments and Simulation of the Near Wellbore Dynamics and Displacement Efficiencies of the Polymer Injection, Matzen Field, Austria. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 11–14 November. SPE-161029-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/161029-MS.
Guo, H., Dou, M., Hanqing, W. et al. 2014. Review of Capillary Number in Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery. Presented at the SPE Kuwait Oil and Gas Show Conference, Mishref, Kuwait, 11–14 October. SPE-175172-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175172-MS.
Han, M., Xianmin, Z., Al-Hasan, B. F. et al. 2012. Laboratory Investigation of the Injectivity of Sulfonated Polymer Solutions Into the Carbonate Reservoir Rocks. Presented at SPE EOR Conference, Muscat, 16–18April. SPE-155390-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/155390-MS.
Han, X. Q., Wang, W. Y., Xu, Y. 1995. The Viscoelastic Behavior of HPAM Solutions in Porous Media and Its Effect on the Displacement Efficiency. Presented at the International Meeting on Petroleum Engineering, Beijing, China, 14–17 November. SPE-30013-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/30013-MS.
Haas, R. and Durst, F. 1982. Viscoelastic Flow of Dilute Polymer Solutions in Regularly Packed Beds. Rheol Acta 21 (4–5): 566–571. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-12809-1_57.
Harrison, G. M., Remmelgas, J., and Leal, L. G. 1999. Comparison of Dumbbell-Based Theory and Experiment for a Dilute Polymer Solution in a Corotating Two-Roll Mill. J Rheol 43 (1): 197. https://doi.org/10.1122/1.550982.
Heemskerk, J., Rosmalen, R., Janssen-Van, R. et al. 1984. Quantification of Viscoelastic Effects of Polyacrylamide Solutions. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 15–18 April. SPE-12652-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/12652-MS.
Hester, R. D., Flesher, L. M., and McCormick, C. L. 1994. Polymer Solution Extensional Viscoelastic Effects During Reservoir Flooding. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 17–20 April. SPE-27823-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/27823-MS.
Hill, H. J., Brew, J. R., Claridge, E. L. et al. 1974. The Behavior of Polymer Solutions in the Porous Media. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22–24April. SPE-4748-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/4748-MS.
Hincapie, R. E. and Ganzer, L. 2015. Assessment of Polymer Injectivity With Regards to Viscoelasticity; Lab Evaluations Towards Better Field Operations. Presented at the EUROPEC, Madrid, 1–4 June. SPE-174346-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174346-MS.
Hirasaki, G. and Pope, G. 1974. Analysis of Factors Influencing Mobility and Adsorption in the Flow of Polymer Solutions Through Porous Media. SPE J. 14 (4): 337–346. SPE-4026-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/4026-PA.
Howe, A. M., Clarke, A., and Giernalczyk, D. 2015. Flow of Concentrated Viscoelastic Polymer Solutions in Porous Media—Effect of MW and Concentration on the Elastic Turbulence Onset in Various Geometries. Soft Matter 11 (32): 6419–6431. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5SM01042J.
Huh, C. and Pope, G. A. 2008. Residual Oil Saturation From Polymer Floods: Laboratory Measurements and Theoretical Interpretation. Presented at the SPE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 20–23 April. SPE-113417-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/113417-MS.
Hyne, N. 1991. Dictionary of Petroleum Exploration, Production and Drilling. Tulsa: Penn Publication.
James, D. F. and Saringer, J. H. 1980. Flow of Dilute Polymer Solutions Through Converging Channels. J Fluid Mech 97 (3–4): 317–339. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0257(82)80038-4.
Jennings, R. R., Rogers, J. H., and West, T. J. 1971. Factors Influencing Mobility Control by Polymer Solutions. J Pet Technol 23 (3): 391–401. https://doi.org/10.2118/2867-PA.
Jiang, H. F., Wu, W. X., Wang, D. M. et al. 2008. The Effect of Elasticity on Displacement Efficiency in the Lab and Results of High Concentration Polymer Flooding in the Field. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 21–24September. SPE-115315-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/115315-MS.
Jones, W. M. 1976. The Flow of Dilute Aqueous Solutions of Macromolecules in Various Geometries: VI. Properties of the Solutions. J Phys D: Appl Phys 12 (3): 369. http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0022-3727/12/3/006.
Jones, D. M. and Walter, K. 1989. The Behavior of Polymer Solutions in the Extension-Dominated Flows With Applications to Enhanced Oil Recovery. Rheol Acta 28 (6): 482–498. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01332919.
Fulcher Jr., R. A., Ertekin, T., Stahl, C. D. 1985. Effect of Capillary Number and Its Constituent on the Two-Phase Relative Permeability Curves. J Pet Technol 37 (2): 249–260. SPE-12170-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/12170-PA.
Kamal, M. S., Sultan, A. S., Al-Mubaiyedh, U. et al. 2015. Review on Polymer Flooding—Rheology, Adsorption, Stability and Field Applications of Various Polymer Systems. Polym Rev 55 (3): 491–530. https://doi.org/10.1080/15583724.2014.982821.
Keller, A., Muller, A. J., and Odell, J. A. 1987. Entanglements in Semi-Dilute Solutionsas Revealed by the Elongational Flow Studies. Prog Colloid Polym Sci 75: 179–200. https://doi.org/10.1007/BFb0109421.
Kemblowski, Z. and Dziubinski, M. 1978. Resistance to Flow of Molten Polymers Through Granular Beds. Rheol Acta 17 (2): 176–187. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01517709.
Kemblowski, Z. and Michniewicz, M. 1979. A New Look at the Laminar Flow of Power Law Fluids Through Granular Beds. Rheol Acta 18 (6): 730–739. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01533348.
Kennedy, J. C., Meadows, J., and William, P. A. 1995. Shear and Extensional Viscosity Characteristics of a Series of Hydrophobically Associating Polyelectrolytes. J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 91 (5): 911–916. https://doi.org/10.1039/FT9959100911.
Keshavarz, B., Sharma, V., Houze, E. C. et al. 2015. Studying the Effects of Elongational Properties on Atomization of Weakly Viscoelastic Solutions Using Rayleigh Ohnesorge Jetting Extensional Rheometry (ROGER). J Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech 222: 171–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2014.11.004.
Kim, D. H., Lee, S., Ahn, H. et al. 2010. Development of a Viscoelastic Property Database for EOR Polymers. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 24–28 April. SPE-129971-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/129971-MS.
Koh, H. 2015. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Polymers on Residual Oil Saturation. PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Kozicki, W. 2002. Flow of FENE Fluid in Packed Beds or Porous Media. Can J Chem Eng. 80: 818–829. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450800505.
Kulicke, W. M. and Haas, R. 1984. Flow Behavior of Dilute Polyacrylamide Solutions Through Porous Media. Ind Eng Chem Fundam 23 (3): 308–315. https://doi.org/10.1021/i100015a008.
Lake, L. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Levitt, D. and Pope, G. 2008. Selection and Screening of Polymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 19–23 April. SPE-113845-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/113845-MS.
Li, Z. and Delshad, M. 2014. Development of an Analytical Injectivity Model for Non-Newtonian Polymer Solutions. SPE J. 19 (3): 381–389. SPE-163672-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/163672-PA.
Lim, T., Uhl, J. T., and Prud’homme, R. K. 1986. The Interpretation of Screen-Factor Measurements. SPE Res Eng 1 (3): 272–276. SPE-12285-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/12285-PA.
Liu, G., Sun, H., Rangou, S., Ntetsikas, K. et al. 2013. Studying the Origin of Strain Hardening: Basic Difference Between Extension and Shear. J Rheol 57 (1): 89. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0257(93)85023-4.
Lotfollahi, M., Farajzadeh, R., Delshad, M. et al. 2016a. Mechanistic Simulation of Polymer Injectivity in Field Tests. SPE J. 21 (4): 1178–1191. SPE-174665-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/174665-PA.
Lotfollahi, M., Koh, H., Li, Z. et al. 2016b. Mechanistic Simulation of Residual Oil in the Viscoelastic Polymers Floods. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 21–23March. SPE-179844-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179844-MS.
Lyons, W. and Plisga, G. 2004. Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, 2nd edition. Gulf Professional Publishing.
Ma, Y. and McClure, M. W. 2017. The Effect of Polymer Rheology and Induced Fracturing on Injectivity and Pressure Transient-Behavior. SPE Res Eval & Eng 20 (2): 394–402. SPE-184389-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/184389-PA.
Machac, I. and Dolejs, V. 1982. Flow of Viscoelastic Liquids Through Fixed Beds of Particles. Chem Eng Commun 18 (1–4): 29–37. https://doi.org/10.1080/00986448208939954.
Macosko, C. W. 1994. Rheology: Principles, Measurements and Applications. New York: Wiley VCH.
Maerker, J. M. 1975. Shear Degradation of Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide Solutions. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal 15 (4): 311–322. SPE-5101-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/5101-PA.
Magbagbeola, O. A. 2008. Quantification of the Viscoelastic Behavior of High Molecular Weight Polymers Used for Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery. MS thesis, University of Texsa at Austin, Austin, Texas (December2008).
Magueur, A., Moan, M., and Chauveteau, G. 1984. Effect of Successive Contractions and Expansions on the Apparent Viscosity of Dilute Polymer Solutions. Chem Eng Commun 36 (1–6): 351–366. https://doi.org/10.1080/00986448508911265.
Manichand, R. N., Let, K. P. M. S., Gil, L. et al. 2013. Effective Propagation of HPAM Solutions Through the Tambaredjo Reservoir During a Polymer Flood. SPE Prod & Oper 28 (4): 358–368. SPE-164121-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/164121-PA.
Marshall, R. J. and Metzner, A. B. 1966. Flow of Viscoelastic Fluids Through Porous Media. Presented at the Symposium on Mechanics of Rheologically Complex Fluids, Houston, Texas, 15–16 December. SPE-1687-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/1687-MS.
Marshall, R. J. and Metzner, A. B. 1967. Flow of Viscoelastic Fluids Through Porous Media. Ind Eng Chem Fundam 6 (3): 393–400. https://doi.org/10.1021/i160023a012.
Martin, F. D. 1974. Laboratory Investigations in the Use of Polymers in Low-Permeability Reservoirs. Presented at the Fall Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, Houston, Texas, 6–9 October. SPE-5100-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/5100-MS.
Martin, F. D. 1986. Mechanical Degradation of Polyacrylamide Solutions in Core Plugs From Several Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE Form Eval 1 (2): 139–150. SPE-12651-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/12651-PA.
Martischius, F. D. 1982. The Rheological Behavior of Polymer Solutions: Flow Consolidation in Shear and Expansion Flows. Rheol Acta 21 (3): 288–310. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01515717.
Masuda, Y., Tang, K. C., Miyazawa, M. et al. 1992. 1D Simulation of Polymer Flooding Including the Viscoelastic Effect of Polymer Solutions. SPE Res Eng 7 (2): 247–252. SPE-19499-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/19499-PA.
Melrose, J. C. and Brandner, C. F. 1974. Role of Capillary Forces in Determining Microscopic Displacement Efficiency for Oil Recovery by Waterflooding. J Can Pet Technol 13 (4): 54–62. PETSOC-74-04-05. https://doi.org/10.2118/74-04-05.
Milton, H. W., Argabright, P. A., and Gogarty, W. 1983. EOR Prospect Evaluation Using Field Manufactured Polymer. Presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, Ventura, California, 23–25 March. SPE-11720-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/11720-MS.
Moorhouse, R., Walkinshaw, M. D., and Arnott, S. 1977. Xanthan Gum—Molecular Conformation and Interactions. In Extracellular Microbial Polysaccharides, ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 45, Chapter 7, 90–102. American Chemical Society. https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-1977-0045.ch007.
Morejon, J. L. J., Bertin, H., Omari, A. et al. 2018. A New Approach to Polymer Flooding: Impact of the Early Polymer Injection and Wettability on the Final Oil Recovery. Presented at the 80th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Copenhagen, 11–14 June. SPE-190817-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/190817-MS.
Moreno, R. A., Muller, A. J., and Saez, A. E. 1996. Flow Induced Degradation of Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide in Porous Media. Polym Bull 37 (5): 663–670. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00296613.
Muller, A. J., Odell, J. A., and Keller, A. 1988. Elongational Flow and Rheology of Monodisperse Polymers in the Solutions. J Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech 30 (2-3): 99–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0257(88)85018-3.
Munoz, M., Santamaria, A., Guzman, J. et al. 2003. Enhancement of the First Normal Stress Coefficient and Dynamic Moduli During Shear Thickening of a Polymer Solutions. J Rheol 47 (4): 1041–1050. https://doi.org/10.1122/1.1579690.
Needham, R. B. and Doe, P. H. 1987. Polymer Flooding Review. J Pet Technol 39 (12): 1503–1507. SPE-17140-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/17140-PA.
Nguyen, T. 1999. Flexible Polymer Chain Dynamics in Elongational Flow: Theory and Experiment. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-58252-3.
Odell, J. A. and Keller, A. 1986. Flow-Induced Chain Fracture of Isolated Linear Macromolecules in Solution. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 24 (9): 1889–1916. https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.1986.090240901.
Olagunju, D. O. 1995. Elastic Instabilities in Cone and Plate Flow: Small Gap Theory. Z Angew Math Phys 46 (6): 946–959. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00917879.
Peter, E. J. 2002. Advanced Petro Physics Book. Texas: Live Oak Book Company.
Plog, J. P., Kulicke, W. M., and Clasen, C. 2005. Influence of the Molar Mass Distribution on the Elongational Behavior of Polymer Solutions in Capillary Breakup. Appl Rheol 15 (1): 28–37. https://doi.org/10.1515/arh-2005-0002.
Pope, G. A., Wu, W., Narayanaswamy, G. et al. 2000. Modelling Relative Permeability Effects in Gas-Condensate Reservoir With a New Trapping Model. SPE Res Eval & Eng 3 (2): 171–178. SPE-62497-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/62497-PA.
Pulz, C., Clemens, T., Sledz, C. et al. 2016. Mechanical Degradation of Polymers During Injection, Reservoir Propagation and Production—Field Test Results 8THReservoir, Austria. Presented at the SPE EUROPEC featured at the 78th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 30 May– 2 June. SPE-180144-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/180144-MS.
Pusch, G., Lotsch, T., and Muller, T., 1987. Investigation of the Oil Displacing Efficiency of Suitable Polymer Products in Porous Media: Aspects of Recovery Mechanisms During Polymer Flooding, 295–296. Germany: DGMK.
Qi, P., Ehrenfried, D. H., Koh, H. et al. 2017. Reduction of Residual Oil Saturation in Sandstone Cores by Use of Viscoelastic Polymers. SPE J. 22 (2): 447–458. SPE-179689-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/179689-PA.
Qi, P., Lashgari, H., and Luo, H. 2018. Simulation of Viscoelastic Polymer Flooding—From the Lab to the Field. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 24–26 September. SPE-191498-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/191498-MS.
Ranjbar, M., Rupp, J., Pusch, G. et al. 1992. Quantification and Optimization of Viscoelastic Effects of Polymer Solutions for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Presented at the SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22–24 April. SPE-24154-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/24154-MS.
Reis, T. and Wilson, H. J. 2013. Rolie-Poly Fluid Flowing Through Constriction: Two Distinct Instabilities. J Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech 195: 77–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2013.01.002.
Rivenq, R. C., Donche, A., and Nolk, C. 1992. Improved Scleroglucan for Polymer Flooding Under Harsh Reservoir Conditions. SPE Res Eng 7 (1): 15–20. SPE-19635-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/19635-PA.
Rodd, L. E., Scott, T. P., Cooper-White, J. J. et al. 2005. Capillary Breakup Rheometry of Low-Viscosity Elastic Fluid. Appl Rheol 15 (1): 12–27. https://doi.org/10. 3933/ApplRheol-15-12-extract.
Rodriguez, S., Romero, C., Sargenti, M. L. et al. 1993. Flow of Polymer Solutions Through Porous Media. J Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech 49 (1): 63–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0257(93)85023-4.
Rouse, P. E. 1953. A Theory of the Linear Viscoelastic Properties of Dilute Solutions of Coiling Polymers. J Chem Phys 21 (2): 1272. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1699180.
Rubinstein, M. and Colby, R. H. 2003. Polymer Physics, Vol. 23. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sadowski, T. J. and Bird, R. B. 1965. Non-Newtonian Flow Through Porous Media. 1. Theoretical. Trans Soc Rheol 9 (2): 243–250. https://doi.org/10.1122/1.549000.
Sandengen, K., Melhuus, K., and Kristoffersen, A. 2017. “Polymer Viscoelastic Effect”: Does it Reduce Residual Oil Saturation. J Pet Sci Eng 153: 355–363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2017.03.029.
Savins, J. G. 1969. Non-Newtonian Flow Through Porous Media. Ind Eng Chem 61 (10): 18–47. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50718a005.
Schneider, F. N. and Owens, W. W. 1982. Steady State Measurements of Relative Permeability of Polymer/Oil Systems. SPE J. 22 (1): 79–86. SPE-9408-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/9408-PA.
Schümmer, P. and Tebel, K. H. 1983. A New Elongational Rheometer for Polymer Solutions. J Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech 12 (3): 331–347. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0257(83)85006-X.
Schunk, P. R. and Scriven, L. E. 1990. Constitutive Equation for Modeling Mixed Extension and Shear in Polymer Solution Processing. J Rheol 34: 1085. https://doi.org/10.1122/1.550075.
Seright, R. S. 1983. The Effects of Mechanical Degradation and Viscoelastic Behavior on the Injectivity of Polyacrylamide Solutions. SPE J. 23 (3): 475-485. SPE-9297-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/9297-PA.
Seright, R. 2010. Potential for Polymer Flooding Reservoirs With Viscous Oil. SPE Res Eval & Eng 13 (4): 730–740. SPE-129899-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/129899-PA.
Seright, R. S. 2011. Use of Polymers to Recover Viscous Oil From the Unconventional Reservoirs. Final report, Contract No. DE-NT0006555, US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (October 2011).
Seright, R. S. 2017. How Much Polymer Should Be Injected During a Polymer Flood? Review of Previous and Current Practices. SPE J. 22 (1): 1–18. SPE-179543-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/179543-PA.
Seright, R. S., Wang, D., Lerner, N. et al. 2018. Can 25-cp Polymer Solution Efficiently Displace 1, 600-cp Oil During Polymer Flooding? SPE J. 23 (6): 2260–2278. SPE-190321-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/190321-PA.
Seright, R. S., Seheult, M., Kelco, C. P. et al. 2009. Injectivity Characteristic of EOR Polymers. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (5): 783–792. SPE-115142-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/115142-PA.
Seright, R. S., Fan, T., Wavrik, K. et al. 2011a. New Insights Into Polymer Rheology in Porous Media. SPE J. 16 (1): 35–42. SPE-129200-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/129200-PA.
Seright, R. S., Fan, T., Wavrik, K. et al. 2011b. Rheology of a New Sulfonic Associative Polymer in Porous Media. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (6): 726–734. SPE-141355-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/141355-PA.
Sharma, V., Haward, S. J., Serdy, J. et al. 2015. The Rheology of Aqueous Solutions of Ethyl Hydroxy-Ethyl Cellulose (EHEC) and Its Hydrophobically Modified Analogue (hmEHEC): Extensional Flow Response in Capillary Break-Up, Jetting (ROJER) and in a Cross-Slot Extensional Rheometer. Soft Matter 11 (16): 3251–3270. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4sm01661k.
Sheng, J. 2010. Modern Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery: Theory and Practice. Gulf Professional Publishing.
Sheng, J. J., Leonhardt, B., and Azri, N. 2015. Status of Polymer-Flooding Technology. J Can Pet Technol 54 (2): 116–126. SPE-174541-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/174541-PA.
Siskovic, N., Gregory, D. R., and Griskey, R. G. 1971. Viscoelastic Behavior of Molten Polymers in Porous Media. AlChE J 17 (2): 281–285. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690170209.
Skartsis, L., Khomami, B., and Kardos, J. L. 1992. Polymeric Flow Through Fibrous Media. J Rheol 36 (4): 589–620. https://doi.org/10.1122/1.550365.
Sousa, P. C., Vega, E. J., Sousa, R. G. et al. 2016. Measurement of Relaxation Times in Extensional Flow of Weakly Viscoelastic Polymer Solutions. Rheol Acta 56 (1): 11–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00397-016-0980-1.
Sobti, A. and Wanchoo, R. K. 2014. Creeping Flow of Viscoelastic Fluid Through a Packed Bed. Ind Eng Chem Res 53 (37): 14508–14518. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie502321a.
Sochi. T. 2009. Pore Scale Modelling of Viscoelastic Flows in the Porous Media Using the Bautisa Manero Fluid. Int J Heat Flow 30 (6): 1202–1217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2009.07.003.
Sochi, T. 2010. Non-Newtonian Flow in Porous Media. Polymer 51 (22): 5007–5023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2010.07.047.
Sorbie, K. S. 1991. Polymer Improved Oil Recovery. Glasgow and London: Blackie and Son Ltd.
Sorbie, K. S. and Roberts, L. J. 1984. A Model for Calculating the Polymer Injectivity Including the Effects of Shear Degradation. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 15–18 April. SPE-12654-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/12654-MS.
Southwick, J. G. and Manke, C. W. 1988. Molecular Degradation, Injectivity and Elastic Properties of Polymer Solutions. SPE Res Eng 3 (4): 1193–1201. SPE-15652-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/15652-PA.
Stavland, A., Jonsbraten, H. C., Lohne, A. et al. 2010. Polymer Flooding: Flow Properties in Porous Media Versus Rheological Parameters. Presented at the SPE EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, 14–17 June. SPE-131103-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/131103-MS.
Stegemeier, G. 1977. Mechanisms of Entrapment and Mobilization of Oil in Porous Media. In Improved Oil Recovery by Surfactant and Polymer Flooding, 55–91. New York, New York: Academic Press.
Sun, W. and Li, K. 2014. Experimental Evaluation of Models for Calculating Shear Rates of Polymer Solutions in Porous Media. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 27–29 October. SPE-170647-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/170647-MS.
Sylvester, N. D. and Rosen, S. L. 1970. Laminar Flow in the Entrance Region of the Cylindrical Tube. Part 2. Non-Newtonian Fluids. AICHE J 16 (6): 967–972. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690160618.
Taber, J. J. 1969. Dynamic and Static Forces Required to Remove Discontinuous Oil Phase From the Porous Media Containing Both Oil and Water. SPE J. 9 (2): 3–12. SPE-2098-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/2098-PA.
Taber, J. J. 1981. Research on Enhanced Oil Recovery, Past, Present and Future. In Surface Phenomena in Enhanced Oil Recovery, ed. D. O. Shah. New York City: Plenum Press.
Taber, J. J., Kirby, J. C., and Schroeder, F. U. 1973. Studies on the Displacement of Residual Oil: Viscosity and Permeability Effects. AIChE Symp Ser 69: 53.
Taylor, K. C. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 1995. Water Soluble Hydrophobically Associating Polymers for Improved Oil Recovery: A Literature Review. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oil Field Chemistry, San Antonio, Texas, 14–17 February. SPE-29008-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/29008-MS.
Taylor, K. C. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2007. Hydrophobically Associating Polymers for Oil Field Applications. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, 12–14 June. PETSOC-2007-016. https://doi.org/10.2118/2007-016.
Tang, J. S. 1992. Interwell Tracer Tests To Determine the Residual Oil Saturation to Waterflood at Judy Creek BHL “A” Pool. J Can Pet Technol 31 (8): 61–71. PETSOC-92-08-06. https://doi.org/10.2118/92-08-06.
Tavassoli, S., Pope, G. A., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2014a. Frontal Stability Analysis of Surfactant Floods. SPE J. 20 (3): 471–482. SPE-169118-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/169118-PA.
Tavassoli, S., Lu, J., Pope, G. A. et al. 2014b. Investigation of the Critical Velocity Required for a Gravity-Stable Surfactant Flood. SPE J. 19 (5): 931–942. SPE-163624-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/163624-PA.
Tiu, C., Zhou, J. Z. Q., Nicolae, G. et al. 1997. Flow of Viscoelastic Polymer Solutions in Mixed Beds of Particles. Can J Chem Eng 75 (5): 843–850. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450750504.
Tyseer, D. A. and Vetter, O. J. 1981. Chemical Characterization Problems of Water-Soluble Polymers. J Pet Technol 21 (6): 721–730. SPE-8977-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/8977-PA.
Urbissinova, T. S., Trivedi, J. J., and Kuru, E. 2010. Effect of Elasticity During Viscoelastic Polymer Flooding: A Possible Mechanism of Increasing Sweep Efficiency. J Can Pet Technol 49 (2): 49–56. SPE-133471-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/133471-PA.
Vermolen, E. C. M., Haasterecht, M. J. T., Masalmeh, S. K. et al. 2011. Pushing the Envelope for Polymer Flooding Towards High Temperature and High Salinity Reservoirs With Polyacrylamide Based Ter-Polymers. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 25–28 September. SPE-141497-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/141497-MS.
Vermolen, E. C. M., Haasterecht, M. J. T., Masalmeh, S. K. 2014. A Systematic Study of the Polymer Viscoelastic Effects on the Residual Oil Saturation by Core Flooding. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 31 March–2 April. SPE-169681-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169681-MS.
Vik, B., Abdul Jelil, K., Kippe, V. et al. 2018. Viscous Oil Recovery by Polymer Injection: Impact of the In-Situ Polymer Rheology on Water Front Stabilization. Presented at the 80th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Copenhagen, 11–14 June. SPE-190866-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/190866-MS.
Volpert, E., Selb, J., and Candau, F. 1998. Associating Behavior of Polyacrylamide Hydrophobically Modified With Dihexylacrylamide. Polymer 39 (5): 1025–1033. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(97)00393-5.
Vorwerk, J. and Brunn, P. O. 1991. Porous Medium Flow of the Fluid A1: Effects of Shear and Elongation. J Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech 41 (1–2): 119–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0257(91)87038-Y.
Vossoughi, S. and Sayer, F. A. 1974. Pressure Drop for Flow of Polymer Solution in a Model Porous Medium. Can J Chem Eng 52 (5): 666–669. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450520521.
Wang, D., Cheng, J., Yang, Q. et al. 2000. Viscous-Elastic Polymer Can Increase Microscale Displacement Efficiency in Cores. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1–4 October. SPE-63227-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/63227-MS.
Wang, D., Cheng, J., Xia, H. et al. 2001a. Viscous-Elastic Fluids Can Mobilize Oil Remaining After Water-Flood by Force Parallel to the Oil-Water Interface. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 8–9 October. SPE-72123-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/72123-MS.
Wang, D., Xia, H., Liu, Z. et al. 2001b. Study of the Mechanisms of Polymer Solutions With Visco-Elastic Behavior Increasing Microscopic Oil Displacement Efficiency and the Forming of Steady “Oil Thread” Flow Channels. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, 17–19 April. SPE-68723-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/68723-MS.
Wang, D., Han, P., Shao, Z. et al. 2006. Sweep Improvement Options for the Daqing Oil Field. Presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 22–26 April. SPE-99441-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/99441-MS.
Wang, D. M., Wang, G., Wu, W. et al. 2007. The Influence of Viscoelasticity on Displacement Efficiency—From Micro- to Macroscale. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, 11–14 November. SPE-109016-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/109016-MS.
Wang, D., Seright, R. S., Shao, Z. et al. 2008. Key Aspects of Project Design for Polymer Flooding at the Daqing OilField. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (6): 1117–1124. SPE-109682-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/109682-PA.
Wang, D., Xia, H., Yang, S. et al. 2010. The Influence of Visco-Elasticity on Micro Forces and Displacement Efficiency in Pores, Cores and in the Field. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, 11–13 April. SPE-127453-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/127453-MS.
Wang, D., Wang, G., and Xia, H. 2011. Large Scale High Visco-Elastic Fluid Flooding in the Field Achieves High Recoveries. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 19–21 July. SPE-144294-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/144294-MS.
Wang, Z. B., Wang, Q., Ma, D. S. et al. 2013. A New Method of Numerical Simulation for Viscoelastic Polymer Flooding. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Characterization and Simulation Conference, Abu Dhabi, 16–18 September. SPE-165972-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/165972-MS.
Warner, H. R. 1972. Kinetic Theory and Rheology of Dilute Suspensions of Finitely Extendible Dumbbell. Ind Eng Chem Fundam 11 (3): 379–387. https://doi.org/10.1021/i160043a017.
Wei, B., Zeron, L. R., Rodrigue, D. et al. 2014. Oil Displacement Mechanisms of Viscoelastic Polymers in Enhanced Oil Recovery: A Review. J Pet Explor Prod Technol 4 (2): 113–121. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-013-0087-5.
Weiss, W. W. 1992. Performance Review of a Large Scale Polymer Flood. Presented at the SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22–24 April. SPE-24145-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/24145-MS.
White, J. L. 1964. Dynamics of Viscoelastic Fluids, Melt Fracture, and the Rheology of Fiber Spinning. J Appl Polym Sci 8 (5): 2339–2357. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1964.070080527.
Wilton, R. R. and Torabi, F. 2013. Rheological Assessment of the Elasticity of Polymers for Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference, Calgary, 11–13 June. SPE-165488-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/165488-MS.
Wissler, E. H. 1971. Viscoelastic Effects in the Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids Through a Porous Medium. Ind Eng Chem Fundam 10 (3): 411–417. https://doi.org/10.1021/i160039a012.
Wreath, D. G. 1989. A Study of Polymer Flooding and Residual Oil Saturation. Master’s thesis, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Wu, W., Wang, D., Jiang, H. et al. 2007. Effect of the Visco-Elasticity of Displacing Fluids on the Relationship of Capillary Number and Displacement Efficiency in Weak Oil-Wet Cores. Presented at the Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, 30 October–1 November. SPE-109228-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/109228-MS.
Xia, H., Wang, D., Wu, J. et al. 2004. Elasticity of HPAM Solutions Increases Displacement Efficiency Under Mixed Wettability Conditions. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Perth, Australia, 18–20 October. SPE-88456-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/88456-MS.
Xia, H., Wang, D., Wang, G. et al. 2008. Mechanisms of the Effect of Microforces on the Residual Oil in the Chemical Flooding. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 20–23 April. SPE-114335-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/114335-MS.
Xia, H., Wang, D., Wang, G. et al. 2012. The Effect of Polymer Solutions Viscoelasticity on the Residual Oil. J Pet Sci Technol 26 (4): 398–412. https://doi.org/10.1080/10916460600809600.
Yin, H. J., Wang, D., and Zhong, H. 2006. Study of Flow Behavior of Viscoelastic Polymer Displacement in Micropore With Dead End. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 24–27 September. SPE-101950-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/101950-MS.
Yin, H., Wang, D., Zhong, H. et al. 2012. Flow Characteristics of Viscoelastic Polymer Solutions in Micro-Pores. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, 16–18 April. SPE-154640-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/154640-MS.
Young, N. W. G., Williams, P. A., Meadows, J. et al. 1998. A Promising Hydrophobically Modified Guar Gum for Completion Applications. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 19–22 April. SPE-39700-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/39700-MS.
Yuan, M. 1981. A Rheological Study of Polymer and Microemulsion in Porous Media. MS thesis, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Zaitoun, A. and Kohler, N. 1987. The Role of Adsorption in Polymer Propagation Through Reservoir Rocks. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, San Antonio, Texas, 4–6 October. SPE-16274-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/16274-MS.
Zaitoun, A. and Kohler, N. 1988. Two-Phase Flow Through Porous Media: Effect of an Adsorbed Polymer Layer. Presented at the SPE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 2–6October. SPE-18085-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/18085-MS.
Zamani, N., Bondino, I., Kaufmann, R. et al. 2015. Effect of Porous Media Properties on the Onset of Polymer Extensional Viscosity. J Pet Sci Eng 133: 483–495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.06.025.
Zechner, M., Clemens, T., Suri, A. et al. 2015. Simulation of Polymer Injection Under Fracturing Conditions—A Field Pilot in the Matzen Field, Austria. SPE Res Eval & Eng 18 (2): 236–249. SPE-169043-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/169043-PA.
Zimm, B. H. 1956. Dynamics of Polymer Molecules in Dilute Solution: Viscoelasticity, Flow Birefringence and Dielectric Loss. J Chem Phys 24: 269–278. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1742462.