Diffusivity of Gas Into Bitumen: Part II—Data Set and Correlation
- William D. L. Richardson (University of Calgary) | Florian F. Schoeggl (University of Calgary) | Shawn D. Taylor (Schlumberger-Doll Research Center) | Brij Maini (University of Calgary) | Harvey W. Yarranton (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,667 - 1,680
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- correlation, hydrocarbon gas, diffusivity, heavy oil
- 17 in the last 30 days
- 80 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The oil-production rate of in-situ heavy-oil-recovery processes involving the injection of gaseous hydrocarbons partly depends on the diffusivity of the gas in the bitumen. Data for gas diffusivities, particularly above ambient temperature, are relatively scarce because they are time consuming to measure. In this study, the diffusion and solubilities of gaseous methane, ethane, propane, and n-butane in a Western Canadian bitumen were measured from 40 to 90°C and pressures from 300 to 2300 kPa, using a pressure-decay method. The diffusivities were determined from a numerical model of the experiments that accounted for the swelling of the oil. In Part I of this study (Richardson et al. 2019), it was found that both constant and viscosity-dependent diffusivities could be used to model the mass of gas diffused and the gas-concentration profile in the bitumen; however, the constant diffusivity was different for each experiment and mainly depended on the oil viscosity. In this study, a correlation for the constant diffusivity to the oil viscosity is developed as a tool to quickly estimate the gas diffusivity. A correlation of diffusivity to the mixture viscosity is also developed for use in more-rigorous diffusion models. The maximum deviations in the mass diffused over time predicted with the constant and viscosity-dependent (mixture viscosity) correlations at each condition are on average 7.4 and 8.7%, respectively.
|File Size||722 KB||Number of Pages||14|
Agrawal, P., Schoeggl, F. F., Satyro, M. A. et al. 2012. Measurements and Modeling of the Phase Behavior of Solvent Diluted Bitumens. Fluid Phase Equilib 334 (25 November): 51–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2012.07.025.
Bearman, R. J. 1960. Statistical Mechanical Theory of the Diffusion Coefficients in Liquid Solutions. J Chem Phys 32 (5): 1308–1313. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1730914.
Bearman, R. J. 1961. On the Molecular Basis of Some Current Theories of Diffusion. J. Phys. Chem. 65 (11): 1961–1968. https://doi.org/10.1021/j100828a012.
Bird, R. B., Stewart, W. E., and Lightfoot, E. N. 2007. Transport Phenomenon, second edition. New York City: John Wiley & Sons.
Carman, P. C. and Stein, L. H. 1956. Self-Diffusion in Mixtures. Part 1: Theory and Its Application to a Nearly Ideal Binary Liquid Mixture. Trans. Faraday Soc. 52: 619–627. https://doi.org/10.1039/TF9565200619.
Darken, L. S. 1948. Diffusion, Mobility and Their Interrelation Through Free Energy in Binary Metallic Systems. Trans. AIME 175: 184–201. [See also Sridhar, S. 2010. A Commentary on “Diffusion, Mobility and Their Interrelation Through Free Energy in Binary Metallic Systems,” L. S. Darken: Trans AIME, 1948, Vol. 175, p. 184ff. Metall and Mat Trans A 41 (3): 543–562. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-010-0177-7].
Das, S. K. and Butler, R. M. 1996. Diffusion Coefficients of Propane and Butane in Peace River Bitumen. Can J Chem Eng 74 (6): 985–992. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450740623.
Dullien, F. A. L. 1963. New Relationship Between Viscosity and the Diffusion Coefficients Based on Lamm’s Theory of Diffusion. Trans. Faraday Soc. 59: 856–868. https://doi.org/10.1039/TF9635900856.
Einstein, A. 1956. Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian Movement. New York City: Dover.
Etminan, S. S. R., Maini, B. B., and Chen, Z. J. 2014. Modeling the Diffusion Controlled Swelling and Determination of Molecular Diffusion Coefficient in Propane-Bitumen System Using a Front Tracking Moving Boundary Technique. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference-Canada, Calgary, 10–12 June. SPE-170182-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/170182-MS.
Ghaderi, S. M., Tabatabaie, S. H., Hassanzadeh, H. et al. 2011. Estimation of Concentration-Dependent Diffusion Coefficient in Pressure-Decay Experiments of Heavy Oils and Bitumen. Fluid Phase Equilib 305 (2): 132–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2011.03.010.
Greiner-Schmid, A., Wappmann, S., Has, M. et al. 1991. Self-Diffusion in the Compressed Fluid Lower Alkanes: Methane, Ethane, and Propane. J Chem Phys 94 (8): 5643–5649. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.460474.
Hartley, G. S. and Crank, J. 1949. Some Fundamental Definitions and Concepts in Diffusion Processes. Trans. Faraday Soc. 45: 801–818. https://doi.org/10.1039/TF9494500801.
Hayduk, W. and Cheng, S. C. 1971. Review of Relation Between Diffusion and Solvent Viscosity in Dilute Liquid Solutions. Chem Eng Sci 26 (5): 635–646. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(71)86007-4.
Hayduk, W. and Minhas, B. S. 1982. Correlation for Prediction of Molecular Diffusivities in Liquids. Can J Chem Eng 60 (2): 295–299. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450600213.
James, L. A., Ioannidis, M. A., and Chatzis, I. 2012. Experimentally Validated Model for the Determination of Concentration-Dependent Diffusion of a Light Hydrocarbon in Bitumen. Energy Fuels 26 (10): 6200–6209. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef300704r.
Jamialahmadi, M., Emandi, M., and Muëller-Steinhagen, H. 2006. Diffusion Coefficients of Methane in Liquid Hydrocarbons at High Pressure and Temperature. J Pet Sci Eng 53 (1–2): 47–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2006.01.011.
Li, J. C. M. and Chang, P. 1955. Self-Diffusion Coefficient and Viscosity in Liquids. J. Chem. Phys. 23 (3): 518–520. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1742022.
Marufuzzaman, M. and Henni, A. 2014. Solubility and Diffusivity of Propane in Heavy Oil and Its SARA Fractions. Can J Chem Eng 92 (8): 1421–1431. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.21977.
Motahhari, H., Schoeggl, F., Satyro, M. et al. 2013. Viscosity Prediction for Solvent-Diluted Live Bitumen and Heavy Oil at Temperatures Up to 175°C. J Can Pet Technol 52 (5): 376–390. SPE-149405-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/149405-PA.
Ramos-Pallares, F., Taylor, S. D., Satyro, M. A. et al. 2016. Prediction of Viscosity for Characterized Oils and Their Fractions Using the Expanded Fluid Model. Energy Fuels 30 (9): 7134–7157. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01419.
Reid, R. C., Prausnitz, J. M., and Poling, B. E. 1987. The Properties of Gases and Liquids, fourth edition. New York City: McGraw-Hill.
Riazi, M. R. 2005. Characterization and Properties of Petroleum Fractions, first edition. West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: ASTM International.
Richardson, W. D. L. 2017. Diffusivity of Light Hydrocarbon Gases in Bitumen. PhD dissertation, University of Calgary (February 2017).
Richardson, W., Schoeggl, F., Maini, B. et al. 2019. Diffusivity of Gas Into Bitumen: Part I—Analysis of Pressure-Decay With Swelling. SPE J. 24 (4): 1645–1666. SPE-195574-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/195574-PA.
Sanchez Lemus, M. C. 2015. Extended Distillation and Property Correlations for Heavy Oil. PhD dissertation, University of Calgary (December 2015).
Tharanivasan, A. K., Yang, C., and Gu, Y. 2006. Measurements of Molecular Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Propane in Heavy Oil Under Reservoir Conditions. Energy Fuels 20 (6): 2509–2517. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef060080d.
Upreti, S. R. and Mehrotra, A. K. 2002. Diffusivity of CO2, CH4, C2H6 and N2 in Athabasca Bitumen. Can J Chem Eng 80 (1): 116–125. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450800112.
Vignes, A. 1966. Diffusion in Binary Solutions: Variation of Diffusion Coefficient With Composition. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundamen. 5 (2): 189–199. https://doi.org/10.1021/i160018a007.
Wilke, C. R. and Chang, P. 1955. Correlation of Diffusion Coefficients in Dilute Solutions. AIChE J. 1 (2): 264–270. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690010222.
Yang, C. and Gu, Y. 2005. A New Method for Measuring Solvent Diffusivity in Heavy Oil by Dynamic Pendant Drop Shape Analysis (DPDSA). SPE J. 11 (1): 48–57. SPE-84202-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/84202-PA.
Yang, C. and Gu, Y. 2006. Diffusion Coefficients and Oil Swelling Factors of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Ethane, Propane, and Their Mixtures in Heavy Oil. Fluid Phase Equilib 243 (1–2): 64–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2006.02.020.
Yang, C. and Gu, Y. 2007. A Novel Experimental Technique for Studying Solvent Mass Transfer and Oil-Swelling Effect in the Vapour Extraction (VAPEX) Process. J Can Pet Technol 46 (9): 44–48. PETSOC-07-09-04. https://doi.org/10.2118/07-09-04.