Identifying Formation Mineralogy Composition in Acid Fracturing From Distributed Temperature Measurements
- Murtada Saleh Aljawad (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- August 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- mineralogy, etching, temperature, fracturing, acid
- 10 in the last 30 days
- 36 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The successful stimulation of carbonate formations by acid-fracturing operations depends on the ability to treat the entire pay zone. The acid dissolves carbonate rocks and creates conductive channels through which the reservoir’s fluids flow. Heterogeneity in lithology causes acid to create a preferential path in the most-reactive zones. Temperature measurements by temperature logging or distributed temperature sensing (DTS) are commonly used to evaluate injection and production zones. The present research includes a modeling study from which the mineralogy in multilayer fractured formations can be identified by means of temperature measurements.
Heat transfer is commonly coupled in acid-fracturing models to account for temperature effects on acid reactivity with carbonate minerals. Temperature profiles are usually evaluated during simulations of fracturing fluid injection, but seldom during fracture closure. Because most of the acid is spent during injection, many models assume that the remaining acid reacts proportionally along the fracture length. Because of this assumption, neither acid spending nor temperature is usually simulated during fracture closure.
In this study, a fully integrated temperature model is developed in which both acid reaction and heat transfer are simulated while the fracture is closing. At each timestep, transient heat convection, conduction, and generation are calculated along the wellbore, reservoir, and fracture dimensions. Modeling temperature during this transient period provides a significant understanding of the near-wellbore fracture dissolution. During shut-in, cold fracturing fluids are heated mainly because of the heat flow from the formation to the fracture. Reactive reservoir sections that receive larger volumes of the cold treatment fluids usually require more time for the geothermal temperature to be restored. Because of this phenomenon, minerals distribution along the wellbore axial direction can be identified in acid fracturing. This information can be useful when designing acid-fracturing jobs in nearby wells or revisiting the same wellbore for further stimulation.
|File Size||812 KB||Number of Pages||12|
Agnew, B. G. (1966). Evaluation of Fracture Treatments With Temperature Surveys. J Pet Technol 18 (7): 892–898. SPE-1287-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/1287-PA.
Aljawad, M. S., Zhu, D., and Hill, A. D. 2018a. Temperature and Geometry Effects on the Fracture Surfaces Dissolution Patterns in Acid Fracturing. Presented at the SPE Europec featured at 80th EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11–14 June. SPE-190819-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/190819-MS.
Aljawad, M. S., Schwalbert, M. P., Zhu, D. et al. 2018b. Guidelines for Optimizing Acid Fracture Design Using an Integrated Acid Fracture and Productivity Model. Presented at the SPE International Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, Muscat, Oman, 16–18 October. SPE-191423–18IHFT-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/191423-18IHFT-MS.
Berman, A. S. 1953. Laminar Flow in Channels With Porous Walls. J Appl Phys 24 (9): 1232–1235. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1721476.
Clanton, R. W., Haney, J. A., Pruett, R. et al. 2006. Real-Time Monitoring of Acid Stimulation Using a Fiber-Optic DTS System. Presented at the SPE Western Regional/AAPG Pacific Section/GSA Cordilleran Section Joint Meeting, Anchorage, Alaska, 8–10 May. SPE-100617-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/100617-MS.
Davis, E. R., Zhu, D., and Hill, A. D. 1997. Interpretation of Fracture Height From Temperature Logs—The Effect of Wellbore/Fracture Separation. SPE Form Eval 12 (2): 119–124. SPE-29588-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/29588-PA.
Dawkrajai, P., Lake, L. W., Yoshioka, K. et al. 2006. Detection of Water or Gas Entries in Horizontal Wells From Temperature Profiles. Presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22–26 April. SPE-100050-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/100050-MS.
Duru, O. O. and Horne, R. N. 2010. Modeling Reservoir Temperature Transients and Reservoir-Parameter Estimation Constrained to the Model. SPE Res Eval & Eng 13 (6): 873–883. SPE-115791-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/115791-PA.
Glasbergen, G., Gualtieri, D., Van Domelen, M. S. et al. 2009. Real-Time Fluid Distribution Determination in Matrix Treatments Using DTS. SPE Prod & Oper 24 (1): 135–146. SPE-107775-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/107775-PA.
Guo, J., Liu, H., Zhu, Y. et al. 2014. Effects of Acid-Rock Reaction Heat on Fluid Temperature Profile in Fracture During Acid Fracturing in Carbonate Reservoirs. J Pet Sci Eng 122 (October): 31–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2014.08.016.
Hagoort, J. 2004. Ramey’s Wellbore Heat Transmission Revisited. SPE J. 9 (4): 465–474. SPE-87305-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/87305-PA.
Hasan, A. R. and Kabir, C. S. 1994. Aspects of Wellbore Heat Transfer During Two-Phase Flow. SPE Prod & Fac 9 (3): 211–216. SPE-22948-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/22948-PA.
Hasan, A. R. and Kabir, C. S. 2012. Wellbore Heat-Transfer Modeling and Applications. J Pet Sci Eng 86–87: 127–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2012.03.021.
Hill, A. D. 1990. Production Logging: Theoretical and Interpretive Elements, Vol. 14. Richardson, Texas: Monograph Series, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Izgec, B., Kabir, C. S., Zhu, D. et al. 2007. Transient Fluid and Heat Flow Modeling in Coupled Wellbore/Reservoir Systems. SPE Res Eval & Eng 10 (3): 294–301. SPE-102070-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/102070-PA.
Kabir, C. S., Hasan, A. R., Jordan, D. L. et al. 1996. A Wellbore/Reservoir Simulator for Testing Gas Wells in High-Temperature Reservoirs. SPE Form Eval 11 (2): 128–134. SPE-28402-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/28402-PA.
Kamphuis, H., Davies, D. R., and Roodhart, L. P. 1993. A New Simulator For the Calculation of the In Situ Temperature Profile During Well Stimulation Fracturing Treatments. J Can Pet Technol 32 (5): 38–47. PETSOC-93-05-03. https://doi.org/10.2118/93-05-03.
Kunz, K. S. and Tixier, M. P. 1955. Temperature Surveys in Gas Producing Wells. In Petroleum Transactions, AIME, Vol. 204, 111–119, SPE-472-G. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Lee, M. H. and Roberts, L. D. 1980. Effect of Heat of Reaction on Temperature Distribution and Acid Penetration in a Fracture. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal 20 (6): 501–507. SPE-7893-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/7893-PA.
Li, X. and Zhu, D. 2018. Temperature Behavior During Multistage Fracture Treatments in Horizontal Wells. SPE Prod & Oper 33 (3): 522–538. SPE-181876-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/181876-PA.
Prats, M. 1969. The Heat Efficiency of Thermal Recovery Processes. J Pet Technol 21 (3): 323–332. SPE-2211-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/2211-PA.
Rahim, Z., Al-Kanaan, A. A., Kayumov, R. et al. 2017. Sequenced Fracture Degradable Diverters Improve Efficiency of Acid Fracturing in Multiple Perforated Intervals Completion Assembly. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 13–16 November. SPE-188187-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/188187-MS.
Ramey, H. J. Jr. 1962. Wellbore Heat Transmission. J Pet Technol 14 (4): 427–435. SPE-96-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/96-PA.
Romero-Juarez, A. 1969. A Note on the Theory of Temperature Logging. SPE J. 9 (4): 375–377. SPE-2464-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/2464-PA.
Seth, G., Reynolds, A. C., and Mahadevan, J. 2010. Numerical Model for Interpretation of Distributed-Temperature-Sensor Data During Hydraulic Fracturing. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. SPE-135603-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/135603-MS.
Sierra, J. R., Kaura, J. D., Gualtieri, D. et al. 2008. DTS Monitoring Data of Hydraulic Fracturing: Experiences and Lessons Learned. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 21–24 September. SPE-116182-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/116182-MS.
Sui, W. and Zhu, D. 2012. Determining Multilayer Formation Properties From Transient Temperature and Pressure Measurements in Gas Wells With Commingled Zones. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 9 (November): 60–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2012.05.010.
Terrill, R. M. 1965. Heat Transfer in Laminar Flow Between Parallel Porous Plates. Int J Heat Mass Transf 8 (12): 1491–1497. https://doi.org/10.1016/0017-9310(65)90034-7.
Whitsitt, N. F. and Dysart, G. R. 1970. The Effect of Temperature on Stimulation Design. J Pet Technol 22 (4): 493–502. SPE-2497-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/2497-PA.
Yoshida, N., Hill, A. D., and Zhu, D. 2018. Comprehensive Modeling of Downhole Temperature in a Horizontal Well With Multiple Fractures. SPE J. 23 (5): 1580–1602. SPE-181812-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/181812-PA.
Yoshioka, K., Zhu, D., Hill, A. D. et al. 2007. Prediction of Temperature Changes Caused by Water or Gas Entry Into a Horizontal Well. SPE Prod & Oper 22 (4): 425–433. SPE-100209-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/100209-PA.