New Insights into Spontaneous Imbibition Processes in Unfractured and Fractured Carbonate Cores with Stress-Induced Apertures
- Odilla Vilhena (Heriot-Watt University) | Amir Farzaneh (Heriot-Watt University) | Jackson Pola (Heriot-Watt University) | Rafael March (Heriot-Watt University) | Adam Sisson (Heriot-Watt University) | Mehran Sohrabi (Heriot-Watt University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- May 2020
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 722 - 740
- 2020.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- fractured carbonate cores, stress-induced apertures, numerical simulation, spontaneous imbibition, experimental evaluation
- 13 in the last 30 days
- 98 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Spontaneous imbibition (SI) experiments in fractured and unfractured Indiana limestone cores were performed to evaluate the impact of fractures in oil recovery. Numerical simulations were performed to reproduce the experimental setting and to history match fracture and matrix properties. Tracer tests were carried out to investigate the effect of changing stresses in hydraulic fracture conductivity. The pore space and connected pores in the fractured plug were analyzed via microscopic computed tomography (micro-CT) scan, and a thin petrography analysis was carried out to observe the matrix heterogeneity of the samples. Relative permeability, capillary pressure, and fracture properties were estimated numerically to match the SI curves measured at a temperature of 58.7°C. The investigation shows that the fractured core has suffered deformation under higher stress conditions, impacting the fracture aperture and the initial values of total permeability measured in the laboratory at a constant net stress. This deformation has led to decreased flow rates in the fracture and oil trapping in the fracture channel. At the field scale, this phenomenon could lead to decreased oil recovery rates in the initial stages of production.
|File Size||23 MB||Number of Pages||19|
Ali, T. A. and Sheng, J. J. 2015. Evaluation of the Effect of Stress-Dependent Permeability on Production Performance in Shale Gas Reservoirs. Paper presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA, 13–15 October. SPE-177299-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/177299-MS.
Axelsson, G., Björnsson, G., and Montalvo, F. 2005. Quantitative Interpretation of Tracer Test Data. Paper presented at the Proceedings World Geothermal Congress, Antalya, Turkey, 24–29 April.
Behbahani, H. S., Di Donato, G., and Blunt, M. J. 2006. Simulation of Counter-Current Imbibition in Water-Wet Fractured Reservoirs. J Pet Sci Eng 50 (1): 21–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2005.08.001.
Berard, T., Jammes, L., Lecampion, B. et al. 2007. CO2 Storage Geomechanics for Performance and Risk Management. Paper presented at the Offshore Europe, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, 4–7 September. SPE-108528-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/108528-MS.
Chen, M. and Bai, M. 1998. Modeling Stress-Dependent Permeability for Anisotropic Fractured Porous Rocks. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 35 (8): 1113–1119. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-9062(98)00167-3.
Delshad, M., Najafabadi, N. F., Anderson, G. A. et al. 2006. Modeling Wettability Alteration in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. Paper presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 22–26 April. SPE-100081-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/100081-MS.
Dunham, R. J. 1962. Classification of Carbonate Rocks According to Depositional Textures. in Ham, W. E., ed., Classification of Carbonate Rocks: AAPG Memoir 1, p. 108–121. Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA: AAPG.
Fernø, M. A. 2012. Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractured Reservoirs. In Introduction to Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Processes and Bioremediation of Oil-Contaminated Sites. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech.
Gale, J. E. 1982. The Effects of Fracture Type (Induced Versus Natural) on the Stress-Fracture Closure-Fracture Permeability Relationships. Paper presented at the 23rd U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), Berkeley, California, USA, 25–27 August. ARMA-82-290.
Geotechenv.com. n.d. Average Viscosities of Miscellaneous Liquids, http://www.geotechenv.com/Reference_Pages/average_viscosities_liquids.pdf (accessed 26 January 2019).
Greenkorn, R. A. 1962. Experimental Study of Waterflood Tracers. J Pet Technol 14 (1): 87–92. SPE-169-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/169-PA.
Haghi, A. H., Chalaturnyk, R., and Geiger, S. 2018. New Semi-Analytical Insights into Stress-Dependent Spontaneous Imbibition and Oil Recovery in Naturally Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs. Water Resour Res 54 (11): 9605–9622. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018WR024042.
Honarpour, M., Koederitz, L., and Harvey, A. H. 1986. Relative Permeability of Petroleum Reservoirs. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press Inc.
Huo, D., Li, B., and Benson, S. M. 2014. Investigating Aperture-Based Stress-Dependent Permeability and Capillary Pressure in Rock Fractures. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 27–29 October. SPE-170819-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/170819-MS.
Jiang, J., Shao, Y., and Younis, R. M. 2014. Development of a Multi-Continuum Multi-Component Model for Enhanced Gas Recovery and CO2 Storage in Fractured Shale Gas Reservoirs. Paper presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 12–16 April. SPE-169114-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169114-MS.
Jones, F. O. Jr. 1975. A Laboratory Study of the Effects of Confining Pressure on Fracture Flow and Storage Capacity in Carbonate Rocks. J Pet Technol 27 (1): 21–27. SPE-4569-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/4569-PA.
Kumar, D., Gutierrez, M., Frash, L. P. et al. 2015. Numerical Modeling of Experimental Hydraulic Fracture Initiation and Propagation in Enhanced Geothermal Systems. Paper presented at the 49th U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, California, USA, 28 June–1 July. ARMA-2015-253.
Latham, J.-P., Xiang, J., Belayneh, M. et al. 2013. Modelling Stress-Dependent Permeability in Fractured Rock Including Effects of Propagating and Bending Fractures. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 57: 100–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2012.08.002.
March, R., Doster, F., and Geiger, S. 2018. Assessment of CO2 Storage Potential in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs with Dual-Porosity Models. Water Resour Res 54: 1650–1668. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR022159.
Meshcheryakova, A., Lukin, S., and Rukavishnikov, V. 2015. Stress-Dependent Permeability Model of Naturally-Fractured Reservoir on the Example of the Field K. Paper presented at the Tyumen 2015-Deep Subsoil and Science Horizons, 23 March. https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201412054.
Moortgat, J. and Firoozabadi, A. 2017. Water Coning, Water, and CO2 Injection in Heavy-Oil Fractured Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 20 (1): 168–183. SPE-183648-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/183648-PA.
Morrow, N. R. and Mason, G. 2001. Recovery of Oil by Spontaneous Imbibition. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 6 (4): 321–337. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-0294(01)00100-5.
Ng, K. W., Poudel, R., Kyle, W. et al. 2017. A Laboratory Experimental Study of Enhanced Geothermal Systems. Paper presented at the 51st U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, California, USA. ARMA-2017-0415.
Obeysekara, A., Lei, Q., Salinas, P. et al. 2018. Modelling Stress-Dependent Single and Multi-Phase Flows in Fractured Porous Media Based on an Immersed-Body Method with Mesh Adaptivity. Comput Geotech 103: 229–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2018.07.009.
Olasolo, P., Juárez, M. C., Morales, M. P. et al. 2016. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): A Review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 56: 133–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.11.031.
Oliveira, G. L. P. D., Ceia, M. A. R., Missagia, R. M. et al. 2016. Pore Volume Compressibilities of Sandstones and Carbonates from Helium Porosimetry Measurements. J Pet Sci Eng 137: 185–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.11.022.
Ramirez-S, J., Samaniego V, F., Rodriguez, F. et al. 1995. Tracer Test Interpretation in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. SPE Form Eval 10 (3): 186–192. SPE-28691-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/28691-PA.
Rozhko, A., Jonoud, S., Wennberg, O. et al. 2017a. Modeling of Normal Net Stress Effect on Fracture Relative Permeability and Its Effect on Oil Recovery from Fractured Car. Paper presented at the First EAGE Workshop on Evaluation and Drilling of Carbonate Reservoirs, 4 October. https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201702365.
Rozhko, A., Naumann, M., Wennberg, O. et al. 2018. Modelling Two-Phase Fluid Flow in a Natural Fracture in Chalk under Different Stress. Paper presented at the 80th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, 11 June. https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201801132.
Rozhko, A., Wennberg, O., and Jonoud, S. 2017b. Modelling of Normal Net Stress Effect on Two-Phase Relative Permeability and Capillary Pressure of Rough-Walled Fracture. Paper presented at the IOR-19th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, 24 April. https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201700274.
Schmid, K. S., Alyafei, N., Geiger, S. et al. 2016. Analytical Solutions for Spontaneous Imbibition: Fractional-Flow Theory and Experimental Analysis. SPE J. 21 (6): 2308–2316. SPE-184393-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/184393-PA.
Teklu, T. W., Alameri, W., Graves, R. M. et al. 2012. Geomechanics Considerations in Enhanced Oil Recovery. Paper presented at the SPE Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 30 October–1 November. SPE-162701-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/162701-MS.
Vialle, S., Druhan, J. L., and Maher, K. 2016. Multi-Phase Flow Simulation of CO2 Leakage through a Fractured Caprock in Response to Mitigation Strategies. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 44: 11–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.10.007.
Zhou, Z., Jin, Y., Zeng, Y. et al. 2018. Experimental Study of Hydraulic Fracturing in Enhanced Geothermal System. Paper presented at the 52nd U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Seattle, Washington, USA, 17–20 June. ARMA-2018-148.
Zimmerman, R. W. and Bodvarsson, G. S. 1996. Hydraulic Conductivity of Rock Fractures. Transp Porous Media 23 (1): 1–30. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00145263.