Wirelessly Powered Microchips for Mapping Hydraulic Fractures
- Yaswanth K. Cherivirala (University of California, Los Angeles) | Hongming Lyu (University of California, Los Angeles) | Hanni A. Alhowri (University of California, Los Angeles) | Aydin Babakhani (University of California, Los Angeles)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,830 - 1,838
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- intelligent tracers, sensors, fracture mapping, hydraulic fractures
- 20 in the last 30 days
- 107 since 2007
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The onset of the era of internet of things and artificial intelligence comes with the ever-growing demand for self-sustaining and efficient sensors. Sensors based on complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOSs) have attracted significant attention in the implementation of distributed sensor systems for a vast number of applications because of their economical and complex integration benefits. In this work, we report CMOS-based energy-harvesting chips as wireless nodes for mapping hydraulic fractures during the shale gas extraction process. The CMOS chips are tested in a custom benchtop core-holder chamber that emulates a downhole environment. An induction coil, sized at 5×5 mm, connected to a custom CMOS chip, is used as a receiver inside the core holder to harvest electromagnetic (EM) energy transmitted by an external antenna. On the basis of the custom core-holder experiment, it is shown that encapsulated CMOS chips are able to harvest EM energy and thereby operate wirelessly. The receiver has a resonance frequency of 198 MHz. The CMOS chip is equipped with an integrated power management unit (PMU), energy-harvesting unit, and a signal-generation block. The CMOS chip inside the chamber produces an output signal with a frequency proportional to the harvested power. By measuring the frequency of the output signal produced by the chip, we are able to localize the chips within the rock inside the custom core holder.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||9|
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