Propagation of Polymer Nanospheres in Outcrop Cores
- Nikita S. Lenchenkov (Delft University of Technology) | Michiel Slob (Delft University of Technology) | Gerard Glasbergen (Shell) | Cor van Kruijsdjik (Shell)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- December 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2,776 - 2,792
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- coreflood experiments with polymers, nanospheres, propagation of nanospheres in porous media
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 109 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
When nanospheres are used for in-depth diversion in heterogeneous reservoirs, it is desired that spheres propagate deep into the reservoir along highly permeable zones with a resistance-factor (RF) buildup over time. This results in the reduced permeability of these reservoir zones and the diversion of subsequently injected water into unswept areas with higher oil saturation.
Theoretically, a good propagation of the spheres can be achieved if their size is significantly smaller than the radius of pore throats. However, because of the interaction of nanospheres with each other and their swelling behavior, they can be retained without further propagation. Depending on the characteristics of the reservoir, the required deep propagation might not be realistic. Hence, it is important to study the influence of essential reservoir characteristics, such as brine salinity, saturation, and rock mineralogy, on the retention of the spheres in porous media.
In this work, a series of coreflood experiments in Berea, Bentheimer, and Boise outcrop cores were performed to experimentally study the flow of nanospheres in porous media with different mineralogy and permeability. Complementary to that, the dynamic of the pressure drop over cores and the carbon content in the effluent were also analyzed at different injection flow rates. Dynamic light-scattering (DLS) tests indicated the size of nanospheres in different types of brine and helped to better understand their influence on the propagation in porous media.
The results of the work show that the propagation of nanospheres in porous media is highly dependent on the brine salinity in cores with single- and multiphase saturations. For the same experimental conditions, the RF of nanospheres in porous media depends on the flow rate.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||17|
Almohsin, A. M., Bai, B., Imqam, A. H. et al. 2014. Transport of Nanogel Through Porous Media and Its Resistance to Water Flow. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169078-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169078-MS.
Bai, B., Wei, M., and Liu, Y. 2013. Field and Lab Experience With a Successful Preformed Particle Gel Conformance Control Technology. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Tulsa, 23–26 March. SPE-164511-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/164511-MS.
Bantz, C., Koshkina, O., Lang, T. et al. 2014. The Surface Properties of Nanoparticles Determine the Agglomeration State and the Size of the Particles Under Physiological Conditions. Beilstein J Nanotechnol. 5: 1174–1786. https://doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.5.188.
Barari, M., Abdollahi, M., and Hemmati, M. 2011. Synthesis and Characterization of High Molecular Weight Polyacrylamide Nanoparticles by Inverse-Emulsion Polymerization. Iranian Polymer Journal 20 (1): 65–76.
Burdine, N. T., Gournay, L. S., and Reichertz, P. P. 1950. Pore Size Distribution of Petroleum Reservoir Rocks. J Pet Technol 2 (7): 195–204. SPE-950195-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/950195-G.
Chiappa, L., Mennella, A., Lockhart, T. P. et al. 1999. Polymer Adsorption at the Brine/Rock Interface: The Role of Electrostatic Interactions and Wettability. J Pet Sci Eng 24 (2–4): 113–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(99)00035-2.
Cohen, Y. and Christ, F. R. 1986. Polymer Retention and Adsorption in the Flow of Polymer Solutions Through Porous Media. SPE Res Eng 1 (2): 113–118. SPE-12942-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/12942-PA.
Denys, K. 2003. Flow of Polymer Solutions Through Porous Media. PhD dissertation, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands (November 2003).
Farajzadeh, R., Lotfollahi, M., and Bedrikovetsky, P. 2015. Simultaneous Sorption and Mechanical Entrapment During Polymer Flow Through Porous Media. Presented at the SPE Kuwait Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Mishref, Kuwait, 11–14 October, SPE-175380-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175380-MS.
Imqam, A., Bai, B., and Delshad, M. 2015. Preformed Particle Gel Propagation Through Super-K Permeability Sand and Its Resistance to Water Flow During Conformance Control. Presented at the SPE/IATMI Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia, 20–22 October. SPE-176429-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/176429-MS.
Irvine, R., Davidson, J., Baker, M. et al. 2015. Nano Spherical Polymer Pilot in a Mature 18 °API Sandstone Reservoir Water Flood in Alberta, Canada. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 11–13 August. SPE-174656-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174656-MS.
Lenchenkov, N., Glasbergen, G., and van Kruijsdijk, C. 2018. Flow of a Cross-Linking Polymer in Porous Media. Transport in Porous Media 124 (3): 943–963. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-018-1105-3.
Manichand, R. N. and Seright, R. S. 2014. Field vs Laboratory Polymer Retention Values for a Polymer Flood in the Tambaredjo Field. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 12–16 April. SPE-169027-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169027-MS.
Peksa, A. E., Wolf, K.-H. A. A, and Zitha, P. L. J. 2015. Bentheimer Sandstone Revisited for Experimental Purposes. Mar Pet Geol 67 (November): 701–719. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.06.001.
Pyrz, W. D. and Buttrey, D. J. 2008. Particle Size Determination Using TEM: A Discussion of Image Acquisition and Analysis for the Novice Microscopist. Langmuir 24 (20): 11350–11360. https://doi.org/10.1021/la801367j.
Saunders, B. R. and Vincent, B. 1999. Microgel Particles as Model Colloids: Theory, Properties and Applications. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 80 (1): 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8686(98)00071-2.
Sendekie, Z. B. and Bacchin, P. 2016. Colloidal Jamming Dynamics in Microchannel Bottlenecks. Langmuir 32 (6): 1478–1488. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b04218.
Sorbie, K. S. 1991. Polymer Improved Oil Recovery. Glasgow, UK: Blackie and Son.
Spildo, K., Skauge, A., Aarra, M. G. et al. 2009. A New Polymer Application for North Sea Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (3): 427–432. SPE-113460-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/113460-PA.
Spildo, K., Skauge, A., and Skauge, T. 2010. Propagation of Colloidal Dispersion Gels (CDG) in Laboratory Corefloods. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium. Tulsa, Oklahoma, 24–28 April. SPE-129927-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/129927-MS.
Tian, Q. Y., Wang, L., Tang, Y. et al. 2012. Research and Application of Nano Polymer Microspheres Diversion Technique of Deep Fluid. Presented at the SPE International Oilfield Nanotechnology Conference and Exhibition, Noordwijk, the Netherlands, 12–14 June. SPE-156999-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/156999-MS.
van Dalen, E. 2014. Conformance Control for Heterogeneous Reservoirs With Nano Particles Suspension. Master’s thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands (November 2014).
Wang, L., Zhang, G., Ge, J.-J. et al. 2010. Preparation of Microgel Nanospheres and Their Application in EOR. Presented at the International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition in China, Beijing, 8–10 June. SPE-130357-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/130357-MS.
Willhite, G. P. and Dominguez, J. G. 1977. Mechanisms if Polymer Retention in Porous Media. In Improved Oil Recovery by Surfactant and Polymer Flooding, eds. D. O. Shah and R. S. Schechter, Chapter 17, 511–554. New York: Academic Press Inc.
Zitha, P. L. J., van Os, K. G. S., and Denys, K. F. J. 1998. Adsorption of Linear Flexible Polymer During Laminar Flow Through Porous Media: Effect of Concentration. Presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 19–22 April. SPE-39675-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/39675-MS.