Development of a Novel In-Situ-Generated Foamed Gel as Temporary Plugging Agent Used for Well Workover: Affecting Factors and Working Performance
- Hu Jia (State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University) | Xin-Yu Yang (State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University) | Jin-Zhou Zhao (State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,757 - 1,776
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- well workover, double crosslinking, temporary plugging, foamed gel, in-situ generated
- 18 in the last 30 days
- 184 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Foams can be used as well-killing fluid for workover operation in low-pressure oil and/or gas wells. However, foams usually come from gas injection under high pressure or high-speed stirring, which is complicated, expensive, and hazardous. In addition, the foam’s stability is still limited by the current method of adding viscous polymer or the single crosslinking between the polymer and single crosslinking agent. This paper explores a simple and safe in-situ generating procedure under surface conditions by virtue of the coefficient function of the CO2-gas-producing chemicals (GPCs) and the foaming agent. The foam stability is enhanced through the double crosslinking with the application of chromium acetate III (Cr3+) and polyethyleneimine (PEI), which guarantees its stability in the wellbore. This systematic study consists of optimization of different foaming agents, gel bases, and the effect of the GPC compositions (carbonate and acid) and their quantity, a macroscopic comparison of the stability and rheological properties of the double crosslinking and the common single crosslinking systems, with further investigation of their stability differences through microscopic research, and a coreflooding experiment to evaluate working performance. Within 4 days, the density of this novel foamed gel varies from 0.711 to 0.910 g/cm3 at 35°C, satisfying the present operation requirements for density and stability. This is because of the function of the GPCs and foaming agent, which means that finer foams can be obtained to achieve target low density. Meanwhile, on the basis of the double crosslinking, a more compact gel structure is formed; thus the stability can be effectively improved. Results also demonstrated that this foamed gel shows a favorable performance of low fluid loss and temporary plugging, and the gas-permeability-recovery rate is up to 93.90%, which proves the gel to be effective for formation-damage control. This study suggests that the novel in-situ-generated foamed gel has the potential to achieve favorable well-workover performance in low-pressure and low-temperature reservoirs.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||20|
AlQuaimi, B. I. and Rossen, W. R. 2017. Characterizing Foam Flow in Fractures for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Presented at the 19th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, 24 April, Stavanger, Norway. https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201700336.
Brattekås, B. and Seright, R. S. 2018. Implications for Improved Polymer Gel Conformance Control During Low-Salinity Chase-Floods in Fractured Carbonates. J Pet Sci Eng 163 (4): 661–670. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2017.10.033.
Chatterji, J., Nguyen, P. D., and King, K. L. 2006. Foamed Completion Fluids and Methods. US Patent No. 7,124,822.
Dauben, D. L. and Raza, S. H. 1970. Increasing Foam Stability in Earth Formations. US Patent No. 3,530,940.
Delgado, E., Crespo, F., and Romero, R. D. Z. 2014. Controlling Extreme Fluid Loss During Workover Operations in Dual-Porosity Reservoirs With Hydraulically Induced Fractures. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 27–29 October, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. SPE-170629-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/170629-MS.
Dong, J., Fan, S., Han, F. et al. 2012. Application of Deformable Microfoam Completion Fluid in Well Guan 23-46. Fault-Block Oil & Gas Field 19 (S1): 103–106 (in Chinese).
Du, X., Zhao, L., He, X. et al. 2017. Ultra-Stable Aqueous Foams With Multilayer Films Stabilized by 1-Dodecanol, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfonate and Polyvinyl Alcohol. Chem Eng Sci 160: 72–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2016.11.024.
Gamage, P., Deville, J. P., and Sherman, J. 2014. Solids-Free Fluid-Loss Pill for High-Temperature Reservoirs. SPE Drill & Compl 29 (01): 125–130. SPE-164064-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/164064-PA.
Gu, M. and Mohanty, K. K. 2015. Rheology of Polymer-Free Foam Fracturing Fluids. J Pet Sci Eng 134: 87–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.07.018.
Han, Y., Xu, J., Wang, S. et al. 2015. Application of Solid Free Low Density Micro Foam Kill Fluid in Low Pressure Gas Wells. Reservoir Eval Dev 5 (1): 58–61 (in Chinese).
Jia, H. and Chen, H. 2018a. The Potential of Using Cr3+/Salt-Tolerant Polymer Gel for Well Workover in Low-Temperature Reservoir: Laboratory Investigation and Pilot Test. SPE Prod & Oper 33 (03): 569–582. SPE-189460-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/189460-PA.
Jia, H. and Chen, H. 2018b. Using DSC Technique to Investigate the Non-Isothermal Gelation Kinetics of the Multi-Crosslinked Chromium Acetate (Cr3+)-Polyethyleneimine (PEI)-Polymer Gel Sealant. J Pet Sci Eng 165 (6): 105–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2018.01.082.
Jia, H., Chen, H., and Guo, S. 2017. Fluid Loss Control Mechanism of Using Polymer Gel Pill Based on Multi-Crosslinking During Overbalanced Well Workover and Completion. Fuel 210: 207–216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.08.032.
Jia, H., Pu, W. F., Zhao, J. Z. et al. 2010. Research on the Gelation Performance of Low Toxic PEI Cross-Linking PHPAM Gel Systems as Water Shutoff Agents in Low Temperature Reservoirs. Ind Eng Chem Res 49: 9618–9624. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie100888q.
Jia, H., Pu, W. F., Zhao, J. Z. et al. 2011. Experimental Investigation of the Novel Phenol-Formaldehyde Cross-Linking HPAM Gel System: Based on the Secondary Cross-Linking Method of Organic Cross-Linkers and Its Gelation Performance Study After Flowing Through Porous Media. Energy & Fuels 25 (2): 727–736. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef101334y.
Jia, H. and Ren, Q. 2016. Evidence of the Gelation Acceleration Mechanism of HPAM Gel With Ammonium Salt at Ultralow Temperature by SEM Study. SPE Prod & Oper 31 (03): 238–246. SPE-179737-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/179737-PA.
Jia, H. and Wu, X. H. 2017. Killing Fluid Loss Mechanism and Productivity Recovery in a Gas Condensate Reservoir Considering the Phase Behavior Change. Pet Explor Dev 44 (4): 659–666. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1876-3804(17)30075-7.
Kapetas, L., Van El, W. A., and Rossen, W. R. 2014. Representing Slow Foam Dynamics in Laboratory Corefloods for Foam Enhanced Oil Recovery. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169059-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169059-MS.
Li, W., Xiang, X., Wu, B. et al. 2009. Development and Application of the Aquagel Workover Fluid System for Pinghu Field in East China Sea. China Offshore Oil Gas 21 (2): 120–123 (in Chinese). https://10.3969/j.issn.1673-1506.2009.02.012.
Luo, X., Pu, W., and Wu, H. 2005. Dehydration Mechanism of Secondary Crosslinked Gels. Pet Sci 2 (4): 46–49.
MacPhail, W. F. P., Cooper, R. C., Brookey, T. et al. 2008. Adopting Aphron Fluid Technology for Completion and Workover Applications. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 13–15 February. SPE-112439-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/112439-MS.
Manlowe, D. J. and Radke, C. J. 1990. A Pore-Level Investigation of Foam/Oil Interactions in Porous Media. SPE Res Eval & Eng 5 (04): 495–502. SPE-18069-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/18069-PA.
Qing, Y., Yefei, W., Wei, Z. et al. 2009. Study and Application of Gelled Foam for In-Depth Water Shutoff in a Fractured Oil Reservoir. J Can Pet Technol 48 (12): 51–55. https://doi.org/10.2118/132162-PA.
Rafati, R., Haddad, A. S., and Hamidi, H. 2016. Experimental Study on Stability and Rheological Properties of Aqueous Foam in the Presence of Reservoir Natural Solid Particles. Colloids Surf A 509 (11): 19–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2016.08.087.
Reddy, B. R. R., Crespo, F., and Eoff, L. S. 2012. Water Shutoff at Ultralow Temperatures Using Organically Crosslinked Polymer Gels. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 14–18 April. SPE-153155-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/153155-MS.
Ren, Q., Jia, H., Yu, D. et al. 2014. New Insights Into Phenol–Formaldehyde Based Gel Systems With Ammonium Salt for Low Temperature Reservoirs. J Appl Polym Sci 131 (16): 40657. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.40657.
Romero-Zeron, L. B. and Kantzas, A. 2007. The Effect of Wettability and Pore Geometry on Foamed-Gel-Blockage Performance. SPE Res Eval & Eng 10 (02): 150–163. SPE-89388-PA. https://doi.org/10.2523/89388-PA.
Scott, S. L., Wu, Y., and Bridges, T. J. 1995. Air Foam Improves Efficiency of Completion and Workover Operations in Low Pressure Gas Wells. SPE Drill & Compl 10 (04): 219–225. SPE-27922-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/27922-PA.
Sydansk, R. D. 1998. Polymer Enhanced Foam Workover, Completion, and Kill Fluids. US Patent No. 5,706,895.
Sydansk, R. D. and Argabright, P. A. 1987. Conformance Improvement in a Subterranean Hydrocarbon-Bearing Formation Using a Polymer Gel. US Patent No. 4,683,949.
Vasquez, J. and Eoff, L. S. 2010. Laboratory Development and Successful Field Application of a Conformance Polymer System for Low-, Medium-, and High-Temperature Applications. Presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference. Lima, Peru, 1–3 December. SPE-139308-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/139308-MS.
Vasquez, J. and Santin, Y. 2015. Organically Crosslinked Polymer Sealant for Near-Wellbore Applications and Casing Integrity Issues: Successful Wellbore Interventions. Presented at the SPE North Africa Technical Conference and Exhibition. Cairo, Egypt, 14–16 September. SPE-175687-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175687-MS.
Wang, J., Zheng, L., Zhang, Y. et al. 2016. Piston-Like Plugging of Fuzzy-Ball Workover Fluids for Controlling and Killing Lost Circulation of Gas Wells. Nat Gas Ind B 3 (1): 77–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ngib.2015.12.011.
Wei, B., Li, H., Li, Q. et al. 2017. Stabilization of Foam Lamella Using Novel Surface-Grafted Nanocellulose-Based Nanofluids. Langmuir 33 (21): 5127–5139. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b00387.
Zhao, G., Dai, C., Zhang, Y. et al. 2015. Enhanced Foam Stability by Adding Comb Polymer Gel for In-Depth Profile Control in High Temperature Reservoirs. Colloids Surf A 482 (10): 115–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2015.04.041.
Zheng, L., Cao, Y., and Han, Z. 2010. Novel Low-Density Drilling Fluid Containing Fuzzy Ball Structure. Acta Pet Sin 31 (3): 490–493. https://10.7623/syxb201003026.
Ziad, A. B., Gromakovskii, D., Al-Sagr, A. et al. 2016. First Successful Application of Temporary Gel Plug Replacing Calcium Carbonate Chips to Isolate Depleted Reservoir, Case Study from Saudi Arabia Gas Field. Presented at the SPE International Conference and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control. Lafayette, Louisiana, 24–26 February. SPE-178986-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/178986-MS.