Evaluation of Terpolymer-Gel Systems Crosslinked by Polyethylenimine for Conformance Improvement in High-Temperature Reservoirs
- Daoyi Zhu (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Jirui Hou (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Yuguang Chen (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Qi Wei (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Shuda Zhao (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Baojun Bai (China University of Petroleum, Beijing, at Karamay and Missouri University of Science and Technology)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,726 - 1,740
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- High-temperature, Conformance Improvement, Water management, Polyethylenimine, Polymer gel
- 8 in the last 30 days
- 282 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
A terpolymer-gel system using low toxic polyethylenimine (PEI) as the crosslinker was developed for conformance improvement in high-temperature reservoirs. Suitable gelation time (GT), gel strength, and thermal stability could be obtained by selecting PEI molecular weight and adjusting terpolymer concentrations. With the increase of terpolymer concentration, GT decreases and the gel strength increases. However, in this research, the effect of PEI concentration on the gelation performance was much less obvious than that of the polymer concentration. Very low concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) can slightly shorten the GT. After critical concentrations were reached, the authors determined that the ions will delay the crosslinking reaction. Moreover, the addition of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) can also lengthen GT. The gel systems were able to maintain thermal stability at 150°C. Uniformly distributed 3D network microstructures and the small size of the gel-grid pores made the network structure maintain thermal stability. The use of the terpolymergel-system gelation mechanism crosslinked by PEI can help petroleum engineers better understand and apply this terpolymer-gel system.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||15|
Al-Muntasheri, G. A. 2008. Polymer Gels for Water Control: NMR and CT Scan Studies. PhD dissertation, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands (September 2008).
Al-Muntasheri, G. A., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., Peters, J. et al. 2006. Investigation of a High Temperature Organic Water Shutoff Gel: Reaction Mechanisms. SPE J. 11 (4): 497–504. SPE-97530-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/97530-PA.
Al-Muntasheri, G. A., Hussein, I. A., Nasr-El-Din, H. A. et al. 2007a. Viscoelastic Properties of a High Temperature Crosslinked Water Shut-Off Polymeric Gel. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 55 (1–2): 56–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2006.04.004.
Al-Muntasheri, G. A., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., and Hussein, I. A. 2007b. A Rheological Investigation of a High Temperature Organic Gel Used for Water Shut-Off Treatments. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 59 (1–2): 73–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2007.02.010.
Al-Muntasheri, G. A., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., and Zitha, P. L. J. 2008. Gelation Kinetics and Performance Evaluation of an Organically Crosslinked Gel at High Temperature and Pressure. SPE J. 13 (3): 337–345. SPE-104071-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/104071-PA.
Alqam, M. H., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., and Lynn, J. D. 2001. Treatment of Super-K Zones Using Gelling Polymers. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 13–16 February. SPE-64989-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/64989-MS.
Bai, B., Zhou, J., and Yin, M. 2015a. A Comprehensive Review of Polyacrylamide Polymer Gels for Conformance Control. Petrol. Explor. Develop. 42 (4): 525–532. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1876-3804(15)30045-8.
Bai, Y., Xiong, C., Wei, F. et al. 2015b. Gelation Study on a Hydrophobically Associating Polymer/Polyethylenimine Gel System for Water Shut-off Treatment. Energy Fuels 29 (2): 447–458. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef502505k.
Cai, W. and Huang, R. 2001. Study on Gelation of Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide With Titanium(IV). Eur. Polym. J. 37 (8): 1553–1559. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-3057(01)00041-6.
El-Karsani, K. S. M., Al-Muntasheri, G. A., Sultan, A. S. et al. 2015. Gelation of a Water-Shutoff Gel at High Pressure and High Temperature: Rheological Investigation. SPE J. 20 (5): 1103–1112. SPE-173185-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/173185-PA.
Hardy, M., Botermans, W., and Smith, P. 1998. New Organically Crosslinked Polymer System Provides Competent Propagation at High Temperature in Conformance Treatments. Presented at the Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 19–22 April. SPE-39690-MS.
Hardy, M., Botermans, W., Hamouda, A. et al. 1999. The First Carbonate Field Application of a New Organically Crosslinked Water Shutoff Polymer System. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 16–19 February. SPE-50738-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/50738-MS.
Jia, H., Pu, W.-F., Zhao, J.-Z. et al. 2010. Research on the Gelation Performance of Low Toxic PEI Cross-Linking PHPAM Gel Systems as Water Shutoff Agents in Low Temperature Reservoirs. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 49 (20): 9618–9624. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie100888q.
Jia, H., Zhao, J.-Z., Jin, F.-Y. et al. 2012. New Insights Into the Gelation Behavior of Polyethyleneimine Cross-Linking Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide Gels. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51 (38): 12155–12166. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie301818f.
Jordan, D. S., Green, D. W., Terry, R. E. et al. 1982. The Effect of Temperature on Gelation Time for Polyacrylamide/Chromium (III) Systems. SPE J. 22 (4): 463–471. SPE-10059-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/10059-PA.
Liu, J. and Seright, R. S. 2001. Rheology of Gels Used For Conformance Control in Fractures. SPE J. 6 (2): 120–125. SPE-70810-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/70810-PA.
Liu, Y., Dai, C., Wang, K. et al. 2016. New Insights Into the Hydroquinone (HQ)–Hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) Gel System for Water Shut-Off Treatment in High Temperature Reservoirs. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 35 (25 March): 20–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2015.09.032.
Moradi-Araghi, A. 1999. Application of Low-Toxicity Crosslinking Systems in Production of Thermally Stable Gels. Presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 17–20 April. SPE-27826-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/27826-MS.
Moradi-Araghi, A. 2000. A Review of Thermally Stable Gels for Fluid Diversion in Petroleum Production. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 26 (1–4): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(00)00015-2.
Moradi-Araghi, A., Bjornson, G., and Doe, P. H. 1993. Thermally Stable Gels for Near-Wellbore Permeability Contrast Corrections. SPE Advanced Technology Series 1 (1): 140–145. SPE-18500-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/18500-PA.
Morgan, J. C., Smith, P. L., and Stevens, D. G. 1998. Chemical Adaptation and Deployment Strategies of Water and Gas Shut-Off Systems. Spec. Pub. Royal Soc. Chem. 211 (1): 119–131.
Mortimer, S., Ryan, A. J., and Stanford, J. L. 2001. Rheological Behavior and Gel-Point Determination for a Model Lewis Acid-Initiated Chain Growth Epoxy Resin. Macromolecules 34 (9): 2973–2980. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma001835x.
Okasha, T. M., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., and Al-Khudair, W. S. 2001. Abatement of Water Production From Upper Permian Gas Wells in Saudi Arabia Using a New Polymer Treatment. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil Show, Manama, Bahrain, 17–20 March. SPE-68152-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/68152-MS.
Omari, A. 1995. Rheological Study of the Gelation Kinetics of the Scleroglucan–Zirconium System. Polymer 36 (4): 815–819. https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-3861(95)93113-Z.
Reddy, B. R., Eoff, L., Dalrymple, E. D. et al. 2003. A Natural Polymer-Based Cross-Linker System for Conformance Gel Systems. SPE J. 8 (2): 99–106. SPE-84937-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/84937-PA.
Reddy, B. R., Eoff, L. S., Dalrymple, E. D. et al. 2005. Natural Polymer-Based Compositions Designed for Use in Conformance Gel Systems. SPE J. 10 (4): 385–393. SPE-84510-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/84510-PA.
Seright, R. S., Campbell, A., Mozley, P. et al. 2010. Stability of Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamides at Elevated Temperatures in the Absence of Divalent Cations. SPE J. 15 (2): 341–348. SPE-121460-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/121460-PA.
Seright, R. S., Lane, R. H., and Sydansk, R. D. 2001. A Strategy for Attacking Excess Water Production. Presented at the SPE Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference, Midland, Texas, 15–17 May. SPE-70067-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/70067-MS.
Sydansk, R. D. 1988. A New Conformance-Improvement-Treatment Chromium(III) Gel Technology. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 16–21 April. SPE-17329-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/17329-MS.
Sydansk, R. D. 1993. Acrylamide-Polymer/Chromium (III)-Carboxylate Gels for Near Wellbore Matrix Treatments. SPE Advanced Technology Series 1 (1): 146–152. SPE-20214-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/20214-PA.
Sydansk, R. D. and Romero-Zerón, L. 2011. Reservoir Conformance Improvement. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Sydansk, R. D. and Seright, R. S. 2007. When and Where Relative Permeability Modification Water-Shutoff Treatments Can Be Successfully Applied. SPE Prod & Oper 22 (2): 236–247. SPE-99371-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/99371-PA.
Sydansk, R. D. and Southwell, G. P. 2000. More Than 12 Years of Experience With a Successful Conformance-Control Polymer Gel Technology. Presented at the SPE/AAPG Western Regional Meeting, Long Beach, California, 19–22 June. SPE-62561-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/62561-MS.
Terry, R. E., Huang, C.-G., Green, D. W. et al. 1981. Correlation of Gelation Times for Polymer Solutions Used as Sweep Improvement Agents. SPE J. 21 (2): 229–235. SPE-8419-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/8419-PA.
Terry, R. E., Rogers, J. B., and Zhu, D. 2017. Applied Petroleum Reservoir Engineering, third edition, Chinese edition. Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press.
Vasquez, J., Civan, F., Shaw, T. M. et al. 2003. Laboratory Evaluation of High-Temperature Conformance Polymer Systems. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 23–26 March. SPE-80904-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/80904-MS.
Vasquez, J., Dalrymple, E. D., Eoff, L. et al. 2005. Development and Evaluation of High-Temperature Conformance Polymer Systems. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 2–4 February. SPE-93156-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/93156-MS.
Walters, G. L. 1989. Hach Water Analysis Handbook. Loveland, Colorado: Hach Company.
Zhu, D., Bai, B., and Hou, J. 2017a. Polymer Gel Systems for Water Management in High-Temperature Petroleum Reservoirs: A Chemical Review. Energy Fuels 31 (12): 13063–13087. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b02897.
Zhu, D., Hou, J., Wei, Q. et al. 2017b. Development of a High-Temperature Resistant Polymer Gel System for Conformance Control in Jidong Oilfield. Presented at the SPE/IATMI Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, 17–19 October. SPE-186235-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/186235-MS.
Zhu, D., Hou, J., Wei, Q. et al. 2017c. Terpolymer Gel System Formed by Resorcinol–Hexamethylenetetramine for Water Management in Extremely High-Temperature Reservoirs. Energy Fuels 31 (2): 1519–1528. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b03188.
Zitha, P. L. J., Botermans, C. W., Van Den Hoek. J. et al. 2002. Control of Flow Through Porous Media Using Polymer Gels. J. Appl. Phys. 92 (2): 1143–1153. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1487454.