Building a Fundamental Understanding of Scale-Inhibitor Retention in Carbonate Formations
- Khosro Jarrahian (Heriot-Watt University) | Kenneth Sorbie (Heriot-Watt University) | Michael Singleton (Heriot Watt University) | Lorraine Boak (Heriot-Watt University) | Alexander Graham (Heriot-Watt University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- February 2020
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 85 - 97
- 2020.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- adsorption, precipitation, carbonate formations, squeeze treatment, scale inhibitor retention
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 106 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The development of effective scale-inhibitor (SI) squeeze treatments remains a challenge for carbonate reservoirs because of their substantial chemical reactivity with the SI. This in turn might potentially lead to uncontrolled SI precipitation and induced formation damage. This work takes a systematic approach to understanding the retention mechanisms of SI in carbonate formations with respect to the detailed carbonate-formation mineralogy, type of SI, and reservoir conditions in the absence of oil. Static adsorption/ compatibility experiments, described previously as apparent adsorption tests (Kahrwad 2008), were performed to evaluate the areas of different retention mechanisms [pure adsorption (Γ) and coupled adsorption/precipitation (Γ/Π)] of different SI species in brine. Experiments were conducted for five SIs at various conditions: initial pH values, mineralogical compositions (calcite, limestone, and dolomite), and temperatures. The SI species used in this study included a phosphonate [di-ethylene tetra-amine penta (DETPMP)], a phosphate ester [polyhydric alcohol phosphate ester (PAPE)], and three polymeric SIs [polyphosphino carboxylic acid (PPCA), P-functionalized copolymer (PFC), and sulfonated polyacrylic acid copolymer (VS-Co)]. All precipitates were studied using environmental scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (ESEM/EDX) and particle-size analysis (PSA). The overall results from these coupled Γ/Π experiments are as follows:
• For the polymeric SIs (PPCA, PFC, and VS-Co), the highest retention levels were observed at low pH for all carbonate substrates, because of the increase in divalent cations calcium and magnesium (Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively) available from rock dissolution for SI–M2+ ions (divalent cations) precipitation. For DETPMP and PAPE SIs, the retention level was greatest at higher pH values, because the SI functional groups were more dissociated and, hence, available for complexation with M2+ ions.
• The polymeric VS-Co predominantly showed pure adsorption with only a low amount of precipitation (Γapp ≈ 1.2 mg/g) in contact with the dolomite substrate. This is because of the presence of sulfonate groups (low pKa).
• For polymeric inhibitors, the retention level (Γapp) was highest on calcite (highest relative calcium content), followed by limestone and dolomite. DETPMP and PAPE SIs showed the highest retention levels on dolomite (higher final solution pH and more SI dissociated), followed by limestone and calcite.
• For all SI species, higher retention (more precipitation, Π) was observed at elevated temperatures. At lower temperatures, an extended region of pure adsorption was observed for all SIs.
The information presented in this study will be helpful in SI product selection on the basis of mineralogy and reservoir conditions. As a consequence, longer squeeze lifetimes and improved efficiency of SI deployment in carbonate reservoirs can be achieved. In addition, this study provides valuable data for validating models of the SI/carbonate/Ca/Mg system that can be incorporated into squeeze design simulations.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Baraka-Lokmane, S. and Sorbie, K. S. 2004. Scale Inhibitor Core Floods in Carbonate Cores: The Influence of pH on Phosphonate-Carbonate Interactions. Paper presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, 26–27 May. SPE-87448-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/87448-MS.
Baraka-Lokmane, S. and Sorbie, K. S. 2006. Scale Inhibitor Core Floods in Carbonate Cores: Chemical Interactions and Modelling. Paper presented at the SPE International Oilfield Scale Symposium, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, 31 May–1 June, SPE-100515-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/100515-MS.
Baraka-Lokmane, S. and Sorbie, K. S. 2010. Effect of pH and Scale Inhibitor Concentration on Phosphonate–Carbonate Interaction. J Pet Sci Eng 70 (1–2): 10–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2009.05.002.
Bassioni, G. 2010. Mechanistic Aspects on the Influence of Inorganic Anion Adsorption on Oilfield Scale Inhibition by Citrate. J Pet Sci Eng 70 (3–4): 298–301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2009.11.023.
Becker, J. R. 1998. Corrosion and Scale Handbook. Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA: PennWell Books.
Boak, L. S. and Sorbie, K. S. 2010. New Developments on the Analysis of Scale Inhibitors. Paper presented at the SPE International Conference on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, 26–27 May. SPE-130401-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/130401-MS.
Carvalho, S., Palermo, L., Boak, L. et al. 2017. Influence of Terpolymer Based on Amide, Carboxylic, and Sulfonic Groups on the Barium Sulfate Inhibition. Energy Fuels 31 (10): 10648–10654. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b01767.
Charpentier, T. V. J. and Neville, A. 2016. Controlling the Kinetic Versus Thermodynamic Growth of Calcium Carbonate Scale in the Bulk and on Surfaces. Paper presented at the NACE International Corrosion Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 6–10 March. NACE-2016-7626.
Crowe, C., McConnell, S. B., Hinkel, J. J. et al. 1994. Scale Inhibition in Wellbores. Paper presented at the University of Tulsa Centennial Petroleum Engineering Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 29–31 August. SPE-27996-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/27996-MS.
Heydrich, M., Hammami, A., Choudhary, S. et al. 2019. Impact of a Novel Coating on Inorganic Scale Deposit Growth and Adhesion. Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 6–9 May. OTC-29218-MS. https://doi.org/10.4043/29218-MS.
Ibrahim, J. M., Sorbie, K., and Boak, L. S. 2012. Coupled Adsorption/Precipitation Experiments: 1. Static Results. Paper presented at the SPE International Conference on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, 30–31 May. SPE-155109-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/155109-MS.
Jarrahian, K., Boak, L. S., Graham, A. L. et al. 2019. Experimental Investigation of the Interaction Between a Phosphate Ester Scale Inhibitor and Carbonate Rocks for Application in Squeeze Treatments. Energy Fuels 33 (5): 4089–4103. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.9b00382.
Jarrahian, K., Sorbie, K. S., Singleton, M. A. et al. 2018. The Effect of pH and Mineralogy on the Retention of Polymeric Scale Inhibitors on Carbonate Rocks for Application in Squeeze Treatments. SPE Prod & Oper 34 (2): 344-360. SPE-189519-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/189519-PA.
Jordan, M. M., Edgerton, M. C., Cole-Hamilton, J. et al. 1998. The Application of Wax Divertor To Allow Successful Scale Inhibitor Squeeze Treatment to Sub Sea Horizontal Wells, North Sea Basin. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 27–30 September. SPE-49196-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/49196-MS.
Jordan, M. M., Kemp, S., Sorhaug, E. et al. 2003. Effective Management of Scaling from and Within Carbonate Oil Reservoirs, North Sea Basin. Chem Eng Res Des 81 (3): 359–372. https://doi.org/10.1205/02638760360596919.
Jordan, M. M., Sorbie, K. S., Jiang, P. et al. 1994. The Effect of Clay Minerals, pH, Calcium and Temperature on the Adsorption of Phosphonate Scale Inhibitor onto Reservoir Core and Mineral Separates. Paper presented at the NACE International, Houston, Texas, USA, 28 February–4 March.
Kahrwad, M. 2008. Scale Inhibitor Retention in Porous Media: Coupled Adsorption/Precipitation Experimental Results and Modelling. Edinburgh, Scotland, UK: Heriot-Watt University.
Kahrwad, M., Sorbie, K. S., and Boak, L. S. 2009. Coupled Adsorption/Precipitation of Scale Inhibitors: Experimental Results and Modeling. SPE Prod & Oper 24 (3): 481–491. SPE-114108-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/114108-PA.
King, G. E. and Warden, S. L. 1989. Introductory Work in Scale Inhibitor Squeeze Performance: Core Tests and Field Results. Paper presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, Texas, USA, 8–10 February. SPE-18485-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/18485-MS.
Mackay, E. J., Matharu, A. P., Sorbie, K. S. et al. 2000. Modeling Scale-Inhibitor Treatments in Horizontal Wells: Application to the Alba Field. SPE Prod & Fac 15 (2): 107–114. SPE-63013-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/63013-PA.
Mahmoud, M. A. 2014. Evaluating the Damage Caused by Calcium Sulfate Scale Precipitation During Low- and High-Salinity-Water Injection. J Can Pet Technol 53 (3): 141–150. SPE-164634-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/164634-PA.
Mavredaki, E., Neville, A. and Sorbie, K. S. 2011. Initial Stages of Barium Sulfate Formation at Surfaces in the Presence of Inhibitors. Cryst Growth Des 11 (11): 4751–4758. https://doi.org/10.1021/cg101584f.
Merdhah, A. B. 2010. Inhibition of Calcium Sulfate and Strontium Sulfate Scale in Waterflood. SPE Prod & Oper 25 (4): 545–552. SPE-141168-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/141168-PA.
Pardue, J. E. 1991. A New Inhibitor for Scale Squeeze Applications. Paper presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Anaheim, California, USA, 20–22 February. SPE-21023-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/21023-MS.
Senthilmurugan, B., Ghosh, B., and Sanker, S. 2011. High Performance Maleic Acid Based Oil Well Scale Inhibitors—Development and Comparative Evaluation. J Ind Eng Chem 17 (3): 415–420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2010.10.032.
Shaw, S. S. 2012. Investigation into the Mechanisms of Formation and Prevention of Barium Sulphate Oilfield Scale. Edinburgh, Scotland, UK: Heriot-Watt University.
Shaw, S., Welton, T. D., and Sorbie, K. S. 2012. The Relation Between Barite Inhibition by Phosphonate Scale Inhibitors and the Structures of Phosphonate-Metal Complexes. Paper presented at the SPE International Conference on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, 30–31 May. SPE-155114-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/155114-MS.
Sorbie, K. S. 2010. A General Coupled Kinetic Adsorption/Precipitation Transport Model for Scale Inhibitor Retention in Porous Media: I. Model Formulation. Paper presented at the SPE International Conference on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, 26–27 May. SPE-130702-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/130702-MS.
Sorbie, K. S., Jiang, P., Yuan, M. D. et al. 1993a. The Effect of pH, Calcium, and Temperature on the Adsorption of Phosphonate Inhibitor onto Consolidated and Crushed Sandstone. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, USA, 3–6 October. SPE-26605-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/26605-MS.
Sorbie, K. S., Yuan, M. D., Chen, P. et al. 1993b. The Effect of pH on the Adsorption and Transport of Phosphonate Scale Inhibitor Through Porous Media. Paper presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 2–5 March. SPE-25165-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/25165-MS.
Tantayakom, V., Fogler, H. S., Charoensirithavorn, P. et al. 2005. Kinetic Study of Scale Inhibitor Precipitation in Squeeze Treatment. Cryst Growth Des 5 (1): 329–335. https://doi.org/10.1021/cg049874d.
Tomson, M. B., Kan, A. T., Fu, G. et al. 2008. Mechanistic Understanding of Rock/Phosphonate Interactions and Effect of Metal Ions on Inhibitor Retention. SPE J. 13 (3): 325–336. SPE-100494-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/100494-PA.
Valiakhmetova, A., Sorbie, K. S., Boak, L. S. et al. 2016. Solubility and Inhibition Efficiency of Phosphonate Scale Inhibitor_Calcium_Magnesium Complexes for Application in Precipitation Squeeze Treatment. Paper presented at the SPE International Conference and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 24–26 February. SPE-178977-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/178977-MS.
Vazquez, O., Mackay, E. J., Jordan, M. M. et al. 2009. Impact of Mutual Solvent Preflushes on Scale Squeeze Treatments: Extended Squeeze Lifetime and Improved Well Clean-Up Time. Paper presented at the 8th European Formation Damage Conference, Scheveningen, The Netherlands, 27–29 May. SPE-121857-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/121857-MS.
Vazquez, O., Thanasutives, P., Eliasson, C. et al. 2011. Modeling the Application of Scale-Inhibitor-Squeeze Retention-Enhancing Additives. SPE Prod & Oper 26 (3): 270–277. SPE-141384-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/141384-PA.
Vetter, O. J. 1973. The Chemical Squeeze Process Some New Information on Some Old Misconceptions. J Pet Technol 25 (3): 339–353. SPE-3544-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/3544-PA.
Wang, Z., Neville, A., and Meredith, A. 2005. How and Why Does Scale Stick—Can the Surface Be Engineered To Decrease Scale Formation and Adhesion? Paper presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, 11–12 May. SPE-94993-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/94993-MS.