The Effect of Voidage-Displacement Ratio on Critical Gas Saturation
- Tae Wook Kim (Stanford University) | Anthony R. Kovscek (Stanford University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 178 - 199
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- voidage replacement, critical gas saturation, viscous oil, experimental studies, depletion
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 177 since 2007
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The critical gas saturation in permeable sands was studied as a function of depletion rate and the presence of an aqueous phase as the major experimental variables. Voidage-replacement ratios (VRR = injected volume/produced volume) less than 1 were used to obtain pressure depletion with active water injection. Three different live crude oils were considered. Two of the oils are viscous Alaskan crudes with dead-oil viscosities of 87.7 and 600 cp, whereas the third is a light crude oil with a dead-oil viscosity of 9.1 cp. The critical gas saturation for all tests ranged from 4 to 16%. These values for critical gas saturation are consistent with the finding that the gas phase displayed characteristics similar to those of a foamy oil. For a given oil and depletion rate, the critical gas saturation was somewhat larger for VRR = 0 than it was for VRR = 0.7. The oil recovery correlates with the critical gas saturation (i.e., for a given VRR, tests exhibit greater oil recovery when the critical gas saturation is elevated). For the conditions tested, there was not a strong correlation of critical gas saturation over more than two orders of magnitude of the rate of pressure depletion, for a given VRR. Such behavior might be consistent with theoretical studies reported elsewhere that suggest that the critical gas saturation is independent of the pressure-depletion rate when the rate of depletion is small.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||22|
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