Insights Into Rock Typing: A Critical Study
- Behzad Ghanbarian (University of Texas at Austin) | Larry W. Lake (University of Texas at Austin) | Muhammad Sahimi (University of Southern California)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 230 - 242
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Porosity, Characteristic length scale, Permeability, Rock type, Formation factor
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 586 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Various methods that link a representative pore-throat size to permeability k and porosity ϕ have been proposed in the literature for rock typing (i.e., identifying different classes of rocks and petrofacies). Among them, the Winland equation has been used extensively, although when it was first proposed, it was based on experiments. Because of empiricism, the interpretation of the parameters of the Winland model and their variations from one rock sample or even one rock type to another is not clear. Therefore, the main objectives of this study are (1) to propose a new theoretical approach for identifying rock types that is based on the permeability k and the formation-resistivity factor F and (2) to provide theoretical insights into, and shed light upon, the parameters of the Winland equation, as well as those of other empirical models. We present a simple, but promising, framework and show that accurate identification of distinct petrofacies requires knowledge of the formation factor, which is measured routinely through petrophysical evaluation of porous rocks. We demonstrate that, although some rock samples might belong to the same type on the k-vs.1/F plot, they might appear scattered on the k-vs.-ϕ plot and, thus, could seemingly correspond to other types. This is because both k and F are complex functions of the porosity, whereas the porosity itself is simply a measure of the pore volume (PV), and does not provide information on the dynamically connected pores that contribute to both k and F. We also show that each rock can be represented by a characteristic pore size Λ, which is a measure of dynamically connected pores. Accurate estimates of Λ indicate that it is highly correlated with the permeability.
|File Size||575 KB||Number of Pages||13|
Aguilera, R. 2002. Incorporating Capillary Pressure, Pore Throat Aperture Radii, Height Above Free-Water Table, and Winland R35 Values on Pickett Plots. AAPG Bull. 86 (4): 605–624. https://doi.org/10.1306/61EEDB5C-173E-11D7-8645000102C1865D.
Altunbay, M., Georgi, D., and Takezaki, H. M. 1997. Permeability Prediction for Carbonates: Still a Challenge? Presented at the Middle East Oil Show and Conference, Bahrain, 15–18 March. SPE-37753-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/37753-MS.
Amaefule, J. O., Altunbay, M., Tiab, D. et al. 1993. Enhanced Reservoir Description: Using Core and Log Data To Identify Hydraulic (Flow) Units and Predict Permeability in Uncored Intervals/Wells. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 3–6 October. SPE-26436-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/26436-MS.
Archie, G. E. 1942. The Electrical Resistivity Log as an Aid in Determining Some Reservoir Characteristics. Trans. of the AIME 146 (1): 54–62. SPE-942054-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/942054-G.
Bakhshian, S. and Sahimi, M. 2016. Computer Simulation of the Effect of Deformation on the Morphology and Flow Properties of Porous Media. Physical Review E 94 (4): 042903. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.94.042903.
Banavar, J. R. and Johnson, D. L. 1987. Characteristic Pore Sizes and Transport in Porous Media. Physical Review B 35 (13): 7283–7286. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.35.7283.
Berg, R. R. 1970. Method for Determining Permeability From Reservoir Rock Properties. Trans., Gulf Coast Assoc. Geol. Soc. 20: 303–317.
Burrowes, A. M., Moss, A. K., Sirju, C. et al. 2010. Improved Permeability Prediction in Heterogeneous Carbonate Formations. Presented at the SPE EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain, 14–17 June. SPE-131606-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/131606-MS.
Bust, V. K., Oletu, J. U., and Worthington, P. F. 2011. The Challenges for Carbonate Petrophysics in Petroleum Resource Estimation. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (1): 25–34. SPE-142819-PA. https://doi.org10.2118/142819-PA.
Carman, P. C. 1937. Fluid Flow Through Granular Beds. Trans., Inst. Chem. Eng. 15: 150–166.
Carman, P. C. 1956. Flow of Gases Through Porous Media. New York: Academic Press.
Dashtian, H., Yang, Y., and Sahimi, M. 2015. Non-Universality of the Archie Exponent Due to Multifractality of Resistivity Well Logs. Geophysical Research Letters 42 (24): 10655–10662. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL066400.
Davies, J. P. and Davies, D. K. 2001. Stress-Dependent Permeability: Characterization and Modeling. SPE J. 6 (2): SPE-71750-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/71750-PA.
Doyen, P. M. 1988. Permeability, Conductivity, and Pore Geometry of Sandstone. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 93 (B7): 7729–7740. https://doi.org/10.1029/jB093iB07p07729.
Dullien, F. A. L. 1979. Porous Media: Fluid Transport and Pore Structure. San Diego: Academic Press.
Dunlap, H. F., Garrouch, A., and Sharma, M. M. 1991. Effects of Wettability, Pore Geometry, and Stress on Electrical Conduction in Fluid-Saturated Rocks. The Log Analyst 32 (5). SPWLA-1991-v32n5a3.
Ghanbarian, B., Hunt, A. G., Ewing, R. P. et al. 2014. Universal Scaling of the Formation Factor in Porous Media Derived by Combining Percolation and Effective Medium Theories. Geophysical Research Letters 41 (11); 3884–3890. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL060180.
Ghanbarian, B., Torres-Verdi´n, C., and Skaggs, T. H. 2016. Quantifying Tight-Gas Sandstone Permeability via Critical Path Analysis. Advances in Water Resources 92: 316–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2016.04.015.
Guise, P., Grattoni, C., Allshorn, S. et al. 2017. Stress Sensitivity of Mercury Injection Measurements. Presented at the International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Vienna, Austria, 27 August–1 September, pp. 1–12. SCA-2017-011.
Gunter, G. W., Spain, D. R., Viro, E. J. et al. 2014. Winland Pore Throat Prediction Method—A Proper Retrospect: New Examples From Carbonates and Complex Systems. Presented at the SPWLA 55th Annual Logging Symposium, Abu Dhabi, 18–22 May. SPWLA-2014-KKK.
Herron, M. M., Johnson, D. L., and Schwartz, L. M. 1998. A Robust Permeability Estimator for Siliciclastics. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 27–30 September, pp. 777–787. SPE-49301-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/49301-MS.
Hunt, A., Ewing, R., and Ghanbarian, B. 2014. Percolation Theory for Flow in Porous Media, third edition, Vol. 880. Berlin: Springer.
Jaya, I., Sudaryanto, A., and Widarsono, B. 2005. Permeability Prediction Using Pore Throat and Rock Fabric: A Model From Indonesian Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, 5–7 April. SPE-93363-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/93363-MS.
Johnson, D. L., Koplik, J., and Schwartz, L. M. 1986. New Pore-Size Parameter Characterizing Transport in Porous Media. Physical Review Letters 57 (20): 2564–2567. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.57.2564.
Johnson, D. L. and Schwartz, L. M. 1989. Unified Theory of Geometrical Effects in Transport Properties of Porous Media. Presented at the SPWLA 30th Annual Logging Symposium, Denver, 11–14 June. SPWLA-1989-E.
Jongkittinarukorn, K. and Tiab, D. 1997. Identification of Flow Units in Shaly Sand Reservoirs. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 17 (3–4): 237–246. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(96)00046-0.
Katz, A. J. and Thompson, A. H. 1986. Quantitative Prediction of Permeability in Porous Rock. Physical Review B 34 (11): 8179–8181. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.34.8179.
Katz, A. J. and Thompson, A. H. 1987. Prediction of Rock Electrical Conductivity From Mercury Injection Measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 92 (B1): 599–607. https://doi.org/10.1029/jB092iB01p00599.
Kolodzie Jr., S. 1980. Analysis of Pore Throat Size and Use of the Waxman-Smits Equation To Determine OOIP in Spindle Field, Colorado. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 21–24 September. SPE-9382-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/9382-MS.
Kozeny, J. 1927. Über Kapillare Leitung des Wassers im Boden. Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien 136 (2a): 271–306.
Lake, L. W., Johns, R. T., Rossen, W. R. et al. 2014. Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil Recovery, 496. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Leverett, M. 1941. Capillary Behavior in Porous Solids. Trans. of the AIME 142 (1): 152–169. SPE-941152-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/941152-G.
Lucia, F. J. 1983. Petrophysical Parameters Estimated From Visual Descriptions of Carbonate Rocks: A Field Classification of Carbonate Pore Space. J Pet Technol 35 (3): 629–637. SPE-10073-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/10073-PA.
Moya, C., Gunter, G. W., Mahadevan, J. et al. 2012. Quantification of Hydrocarbon Volume: An Example Using Rock Typing Methodology Applied in Cerro Negro Field, Eastern Venezuela Basin. Presented at the SPE Latin America and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Mexico City, 16–18 April. SPE-151628-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/151628-MS.
Müller-Huber, E., Schön, J., and Börner, F. 2016. Combining Hydraulic and Electrical Conductivity for Pore-Space Characterization in Carbonate Rocks. Petrophysics 57 (3): 233–250. SPWLA-2016-v57n3a2.
Nabawy, B. S., Géraud, Y., Rochette, P. et al. 2009. Pore-Throat Characterization in Highly Porous and Permeable Sandstones. AAPG Bull. 93 (6): 719–739. https://doi.org/10.1306/03160908131.
Nelson, P. H. 2005. Permeability, Porosity, and Pore-Throat Size? A 3D Perspective. Petrophysics 46 (6): 452–455. SPWLA-2005-v46n6a4.
Ngo, V. T., Lu, V. D., Nguyen, M. H. et al. 2015. A Comparison of Permeability Prediction Methods Using Core Analysis Data. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Characterization and Simulation Conference and Exhibition, Abu Dhabi, 14–16 September. SPE-175650-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175650-MS.
Panda, M. N. and Lake, L. W. 1995. A Physical Model of Cementation and Its Effects on Single-Phase Permeability. AAPG Bull. 79 (3): 431–443. https://doi.org/10.1306/8D2B1552-171E-11D7-8645000102C1865D.
Pittman, E. D. 1992. Relationship of Porosity and Permeability to Various Parameters Derived From Mercury Injection-Capillary Pressure Curves of Sandstone (1). AAPG Bull. 76 (2): 191–198. https://doi.org/10.1306/BDFF87A4-1718-11D7-8645000102C1865D.
Prasad, M. 2003. Velocity-Permeability Relations Within Hydraulic Units. Geophysics 68 (1): 108–117.
Revil, A., Florsch, N., and Camerlynck, C. 2014. Spectral Induced Polarization Porosimetry. Geophysical Journal International 198 (2): 1016–1033. https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggu180.
Rezaee, M. R., Jafari, A., and Kazemzadeh, E. 2006. Relationships Between Permeability, Porosity and Pore Throat Size in Carbonate Rocks Using Regression Analysis and Neural Networks. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering 3 (4): 370–376. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-2132/3/4/008.
Rezaee, R., Saeedi, A., and Clennell, B. 2012. Tight Gas Sands Permeability Estimation From Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 88–89: 92–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2011.12.014.
Rushing, J. A., Newsham, K. E., and Blasingame, T. A. 2008. Rock Typing: Keys to Understanding Productivity in Tight Gas Sands. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Reservoirs Conference, Keystone, Colorado, 10–12 February. SPE-114164-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/114164-MS.
Sahimi, M. 1994. Applications of Percolation Theory. London: Taylor & Francis.
Sahimi, M. 2011. Flow and Transport in Porous Media and Fractured Rock, second edition, Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH.
Salimifard, B., Ruth, D. W., and Nassichuk, B. 2015. A Study of Mercury Intrusion on Montney Formation Rocks and How It Relates to Permeability. Presented at the SPE/CSUR Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 20–22 October. SPE-175968-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175968-MS.
Schwartz, L. M. and Banavar, J. R. 1989. Transport Properties of Disordered Continuum Systems. Physical Review B 39 (16): 11965–11970. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.39.11965.
Schwartz, L. M., Martys, N., Bentz, D. P. et al. 1993. Cross-Property Relations and Permeability Estimation in Model Porous Media. Physical Review E 48 (6): 4584–4591. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.48.4584.
Sen, P. N., Goode, P. A., and Sibbit, A. 1988. Electrical Conduction in Clay-Bearing Sandstones at Low and High Salinities. Journal of Applied Physics 63 (10): 4832–4840. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.340476.
Sen, P. N., Straley, C., Kenyon, W. E. et al. 1990. Surface-to-Volume Ratio, Charge Density, Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation, and Permeability in Clay-Bearing Sandstones. Geophysics 55 (1): 61–69. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1442772.
Swanson, B. F. 1981. A Simple Correlation Between Permeabilities and Mercury Capillary Pressures. J Pet Technol 33 (12): 2498–2504. SPE-8234-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/8234-PA.
Thomeer, J. H. M. 1960. Introduction of a Pore Geometrical Factor Defined by the Capillary Pressure Curve. J Pet Technol 12 (3): 73–77. SPE-1324-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/1324-G.
Vinegar, H. J. and Waxman, M. H. 1984. Induced Polarization of Shaly Sands. Geophysics 49 (8): 1267–1287. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1441755.
Waxman, M. H. and Smits, L. J. M. 1968. Electrical Conductivities in Oil-Bearing Shaly Sands. SPE J. 8 (2): 107–122. SPE-1863-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/1863-PA.
Waxman, M. H. and Thomas, E. C. 1974. Electrical Conductivities in Shaly Sands—I. The Relation Between Hydrocarbon Saturation and Resistivity Index; II. The Temperature Coefficient of Electrical Conductivity. J Pet Technol 26 (2): 213–225. SPE-4094-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/4094-PA.
Wong, P.-Z., Koplik, J., and Tomanic, J. P. 1984. Conductivity and Permeability of Rocks. Physical Review B 30: 6606–6614. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.30.6606.
Wyllie, M. R. J. and Gregory, A. R. 1955. Fluid Flow Through Unconsolidated Porous Aggregates: Effect of Porosity and Particle Shape on Kozeny-Carman Constants. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 47 (7): 1379–1388. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50547a037.
Xu, C. and Torres-Verdi´n, C. 2012. Saturation-Height and Invasion Consistent Hydraulic Rock Typing Using Multi-Well Conventional Logs. Presented at the SPWLA 53rd Annual Logging Symposium, Cartagena, Columbia, 16–20 June. SPWLA-2012-071.
Xu, C., Torres-Verdin, C., Yang, Q. et al. 2013a. Connate Water Saturation-Irreducible or Not: The Key to Reliable Hydraulic Rock Typing in Reservoirs Straddling Multiple Capillary Windows. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, September–2 October. SPE-166082-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/166082-MS.
Xu, C., Torres-Verdi´n, C., and Gao, S. 2013b. Electrical vs. Hydraulic Rock Types in Clastic Reservoirs: Pore-Scale Understanding Verified With Field Observations in the Gulf of Mexico, US. Presented at the 2013 SEG Annual Meeting, Houston, 22–27 September. SEG-2013-0047.