Performance of Silica Nanoparticles in CO2 Foam for EOR and CCUS at Tough Reservoir Conditions
- Arthur U. Rognmo (University of Bergen) | Noor Al-Khayyat (University of Bergen) | Sandra Heldal (University of Bergen) | Ida Vikingstad (University of Bergen) | Øyvind Eide (University of Bergen) | Sunniva B. Fredriksen (University of Bergen) | Zachary P. Alcorn (University of Bergen) | Arne Graue (University of Bergen) | Steven L. Bryant (University of Calgary) | Anthony R. Kovscek (Stanford University) | Martin A. Fernø (University of Bergen)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2020
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 406 - 415
- 2020.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- CO2-foam, mobility reduction, EOR, nanoparticles
- 9 in the last 30 days
- 181 since 2007
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The use of nanoparticles for CO2-foam mobility is an upcoming technology for carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) in mature fields. Silane-modified hydrophilic silica nanoparticles enhance the thermodynamic stability of CO2 foam at elevated temperatures and salinities and in the presence of oil. The aqueous nanofluid mixes with CO2 in the porous media to generate CO2 foam for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by improving sweep efficiency, resulting in reduced carbon footprint from oil production by the geological storage of anthropogenic CO2. Our objective was to investigate the stability of commercially available silica nanoparticles for a range of temperatures and brine salinities to determine if nanoparticles can be used in CO2-foam injections for EOR and underground CO2 storage in high-temperature reservoirs with high brine salinities. The experimental results demonstrated that surface-modified nanoparticles are stable and able to generate CO2 foam at elevated temperatures (60 to 120°C) and extreme brine salinities (20 wt% NaCl). We find that (1) nanofluids remain stable at extreme salinities (up to 25 wt% total dissolved solids) with the presence of both monovalent (NaCl) and divalent (CaCl2) ions; (2) both pressure gradient and incremental oil recovery during tertiary CO2-foam injections were 2 to 4 times higher with nanoparticles compared with no-foaming agent; and (3) CO2 stored during CCUS with nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foam increased by more than 300% compared with coinjections without nanoparticles.
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